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Table 1 Types of measurement methods by type of behavior and time period.

From: Why combine diet and physical activity in the same international research society?

Time Period Diet PA
24 hours 24 hr. recall (14) 24 hr. recall (12)
  24 hr. food recognition (15) 24 hr. physical activity recognition (16)
  Observation (19) Observation (17–18)
Week 7-day food record (20) 7-day activity recall (14)
  7-day food frequency (21)  
Longer (months, years) Food frequency (22–23) Many activity inventories (14)
Technology Assisted for Variable Time Units Food Intake Recording Software System (24) Activitygram
   Accelerometer (30)
  Camera (33–35) Pedometer (29–30)
   Heart Rate Monitor (31–32)
Biomarkers for Variable Time Units Doubly labeled water (25) Serum nutrients (26, 28)