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Table 2 Marketing Practices Used in US Schools

From: Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US

Activities Examples
Product Sales  
Food/beverage sales benefiting a district, school, or student activity • Exclusionary contracts or other arrangements between school districts, or schools and bottlers to sell soft drinks in schools or on school grounds
Branded fast food • Contracts or other arrangements between districts or schools and fast food companies to sell food in schools or on school grounds
Cash or credit rebate programs • Programs that award cash or equipment to schools in proportion to the value of store receipts or coupons collected by the schools (e.g., cereal box tops, food product labels)
Fundraising activities • Short-term sales of candy, pizza, cookie dough, etc. by parents, students, or both to benefit a specific student population or club
Direct Advertising  
Advertising in schools, in school facilities, an on school buses • Billboards and signs in school corridors, sports facilities, or buses • Product displays • Corporate logos or brand names on school equipment, such as marquees, message boards, scoreboards, and backboards • Ads, corporate logos, or brand names on posters, book covers, and student assignment books
Advertisements in school publications • Ads in sports programs, yearbooks, school newspapers, and school calendars
Media-based advertising • Televised ads aired by Channel One or commercial stations • Screen-saver ads, corporate logos or brandnames on computers
Samples • Free snack food or beverages
Indirect Advertising  
Corporate-sponsored educational materials • Teaching materials and nutrition education kits from food corporations that incorporate the sponsor's products or promote the sponsor's brand • Nutrition information produced by trade associations (e.g., dairy, meat, egg, sugar association)
Corporate-sponsored contests and incentives • Pizza Hut's Book-It program, McDonald's McSpellIt Club
Corporate grants or gifts • Corporate gifts to schools that generate commercial benefits to the donor
Market Research  
Surveys or polls • Student questionnaires or taste tests
Internet panels • Use of the Internet to poll students' responses to computer-delivered questions
Internet tracking • Tracking students' Internet behavior and responses to questions at one or more websites
  1. Adapted from: US General Accounting Office. Commercial Activities in Schools, 2000.