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Table 1 Rules for classifying associations between variables and screen media exposure

From: Screen time use in children under 3 years old: a systematic review of correlates

Association codes Meaning of code % of studies examining variable needed to draw conclusion
(+) Positive association 60% or greater
(−) Negative association 60% or greater
NA No association 60% or greater
U Unclear association Less than 60%
Consistency codes   
S Strong consistency 70-100% of studies examining given variable support one association
M Moderate consistency 60-70% of studies support one association
IN Inconclusive Fewer than 3 studies examined variable, no conclusions can be drawn
  1. * = 4 or more studies support the given association/non-association.