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Table 2 Association of individual and neighbourhood characteristics with leisure-time walking and cycling

From: Neighbourhood safety and leisure-time physical activity among Dutch adults: a multilevel perspective

  % N Odds Ratio (95% CI) Model 3a
Leisure-time walking Leisure-time cycling
Individual characteristics    
Age (years) 49 ± 17 1.01 (1.01 – 1.01)* 1.00 (1.00 – 1.00)
Gender    
Men 47.2% 1.00 1.00
Women 52.8% 1.46 (1.38 – 1.55)* 1.18 (1.12 – 1.25)*
Ethnicity    
Native (Dutch) 87.1% 1.00 1.00
Non-native, Western 6.4% 1.19 (1.06 – 1.35)* 0.84 (0.75 – 0.95)*
Non-native, non-Western 3.5% 1.16 (0.99 – 1.37) 0.54 (0.45 – 0.63)*
Non-native, origin unknown 2.9% 0.90 (0.76 – 1.06) 0.68 (0.58 – 0.81)*
Household composition    
Married/partner, no children 37.8% 1.00 1.00
Married/partner with child(ren) 39.9% 0.93 (0.87 – 1.01) 0.94 (0.87 – 1.01)
Single, no children 17.2% 0.74 (0.68 – 0.81)* 0.77 (0.71 – 0.84)*
Single with child(ren) 4.4% 0.70 (0.60 – 0.81)* 0.75 (0.65 – 0.87)*
Unknown 0.8% 0.59 (0.43 – 0.80)* 0.77 (0.56 – 1.06)
Education    
Tertiary education 26.3% 1.00 1.00
Secondary education: upper level 35.5% 0.73 (0.67 – 0.79)* 0.79 (0.74 – 0.86)*
Secondary education: mid level 8.5% 0.65 (0.58 – 0.73)* 0.73 (0.65 – 0.82)*
Secondary education: lower level 14.8% 0.58 (0.52 – 0.64)* 0.73 (0.66 – 0.81)*
Primary education 14.6% 0.42 (0.38 – 0.47)* 0.48 (0.43 – 0.53)*
Unknown 0.3% 1.08 (0.61 – 1.91) 0.63 (0.38 – 1.06)
Household income (€)    
>29.900 20.9% 1.00 1.00
23.600 – 29.900 20.5% 1.02 (0.93 – 1.12) 1.04 (0.95 – 1.14)
19.200 – 23.600 20.1% 1.00 (0.91 – 1.10) 1.15 (1.04 – 1.26)*
15.200 – 19.200 19.8% 1.03 (0.93 – 1.13) 1.21 (1.09 – 1.33)*
<15.200 17.8% 0.95 (0.85 – 1.05) 1.11 (0.99 – 1.23)
Unknown 1.1% 0.93 (0.70 – 1.25) 1.06 (0.79 – 1.41)
Household wealth (€)    
>293.469 15.1% 1.00 1.00
148.000 – 293.469 15.0% 0.97 (0.87 – 1.09) 0.97 (0.87 – 1.08)
39.047 – 148.000 14.5% 1.02 (0.92 – 1.14) 0.87 (0.78 – 0.97)*
3.362 – 39.047 13.6% 0.89 (0.80 – 1.00) 0.71 (0.63 – 0.79)*
<3.362 12.2% 1.00 (0.89 – 1.13) 0.70 (0.62 – 0.79)*
Unknown 29.6% 1.02 (0.92 – 1.13) 0.83 (0.75 – 0.91)*
Neighbourhood characteristics
Population density    
Very dense 16.5% 1.00 1.00
Dense 27.6% 0.92 (0.84 – 1.01) 0.99 (0.90 – 1.09)
Moderately dense 21.8% 0.97 (0.88 – 1.08) 1.03 (0.93 – 1.14)
Slightly dense 23.2% 0.99 (0.89 – 1.10) 1.04 (0.94 – 1.16)
Not dense 10.9% 1.03 (0.91 – 1.17) 0.97 (0.85 – 1.10)
  1. *p≤0,05.
  2. aAdjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, household composition, education, household income, household wealth, population density.
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