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Table 4 Relationship between frequency of breakfast consumption and body composition variables a

From: Sizing the association between lifestyle behaviours and fatness in a large, heterogeneous sample of youth of multiple ethnicities from 4 countries

   New Zealand Fiji Tonga Australia All
  Days Pacific (N = 750) Maori (N = 336) Asian (N = 122) European (N = 220) All New Zealand (N = 1428) Indigenous Fijian (N = 612) Fijian Indian (N = 829) All Fiji (N = 1441) Tongan (N = 1019) Australian (N = 1673) All (N = 5561)d
Mean BMIb 5 24.17 (0.18) 22.74 (0.33) 20.09 (0.24) 21.29 (0.28) 23.10 (0.08) 21.51 (0.13) 18.77 (0.12) 19.94 (0.09) 22.31 (0.12) 20.65 (0.07) 21.47 (0.06)
Increment in BMIc 3-4 1.22 (0.34) 2.10 (0.87)* 0.25 (0.16) 0.09 (0.16) 1.16 (0.30) 0.41 (0.32) 0.39 (0.35) 0.36 (0.23) 0.22 (0.18) 0.12 (0.30) 0.43 (0.15)
0-2 1.60 (0.35) 1.88 (0.57) 0.94 (0.20) 0.75 (0.61) 1.43 (0.20) 0.34 (0.25) 0.53 (0.25)* 0.42 (0.20) 0.09 (0.24) 0.57 (0.18) 0.64 (0.14)
Mean BMIzb 5 1.18 (0.04) 0.82 (0.07) -0.09 (0.09) 0.29 (0.06) 0.86 (0.02) 0.36 (0.04) -0.71 (0.05) -0.26 (0.03) 0.69 (0.04) 0.28 (0.03) 0.38 (0.02)
Increment in BMIzc 3-4 0.24 (0.07) 0.43 (0.19)* 0.01 (0.05) -0.01 (0.05) 0.23 (0.06)* 0.09 (0.08) 0.12 (0.13) 0.10 (0.06) 0.06 (0.05) 0.01 (0.01) 0.09 (0.04)*
0-2 0.30 (0.07) 0.40 (0.12) 0.29 (0.06) 0.19 (0.15) 0.29 (0.04) 0.08 (0.07) 0.18 (0.09)* 0.13 (0.07) 0.04 (0.07) 0.14 (0.05) 0.14 (0.03)
Mean %BFb 5 28.81 (0.72) 26.81 (0.74) 22.31 (0.75) 23.81 (0.47) 27.14 (0.49) 20.30 (0.42) 22.09 (0.41) 21.34 (0.34) 22.21 (0.58) 25.93 (0.23) 24.49 (0.17)
Increment in %BFc 3-4 2.18 (1.14) 4.54 (1.76)* -2.14 (1.25) -0.44 (0.86) 2.04 (0.84) 0.74 (0.56) 1.07 (0.83) 0.78 (0.47) 0.68 (0.42) 0.30 (0.77) 0.95 (0.33)
0-2 2.55 (0.99)* 3.99 (1.35) 0.18 (0.98) 2.89 (1.31)* 2.58 (0.83)* 0.06 (0.42) 0.77 (0.54) 0.41 (0.40) 0.41 (0.66) 1.96 (0.51) 1.21 (0.34)
Mean TFMb 5 20.54 (0.84) 18.21 (0.76) 12.17 (0.48) 14.81 (0.56) 18.55 (0.48) 12.14 (0.30) 10.99 (0.31) 11.50 (0.26) 13.86 (0.41) 14.86 (0.15) 14.93 (0.16)
Increment in TFMc 3-4 3.31 (1.27)* 5.09 (2.28)* -0.76 (0.59) -0.14 (0.63) 2.91 (0.88)* 0.92 (0.64) 0.78 (0.75) 0.69 (0.49) 0.54 (0.35) 0.25 (0.67) 1.02 (0.35)
0-2 3.60 (1.18) 4.78 (1.43) 0.94 (0.51) 2.98 (1.46)* 3.37 (0.81) 0.13 (0.46) 0.89 (0.54) 0.51 (0.40) 0.17 (0.51) 1.31 (0.44) 1.33 (0.37)
  1. aAdjusted for age and sex. “New Zealand All”, “Fiji All” and “All countries” were further adjusted for ethnicity; bStandard error in parentheses; cCompared to “5 days” (reference category). Standard error in parentheses; dR2 for BMI, BMIz, %BF and TFM models = 0.317, 0.311, 0.250 and 0.230, respectively; BMI = Body mass index (kg/m2); BMIz = BMI z-score; %BF = Percent body fat (%); TFM = Total fat mass (kg); *P<0.05; P <0.01; P <0.001.