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Table 1 Summary of findings from research studies

From: Physical activity patterns among South-Asian adults: a systematic review

Author [ref] Country Year of study Sample characteristics Assessment tools and definitions Results
Vaz M et al. [20, 21], India, Study year not reported Published 2004 ,2006 Sample size 782 (males 341, females 441), Age 17-70 yrs Urban setting Convenient sampling Interviewer administered questionnaire, Physical activity level (PAL) = (Daily Total energy expenditure/Estimated basal metabolic rate), Sedentary/Inactive (PAL) <1.5 Physical activity level (PAL) in adult males 1.22-1.64 and females 1.30-1.56., Overall physical activity in oldest group (> 58 yrs) was significantly low and females had low overall physical activity levels than males, Discretionary exercise was the highest in the youngest age, Women had significantly lower discretionary exercise and higher levels of household chores than males, Males and females who did not exercise >20 min/day ranged from 22.6%-60.8% and 40.9%-75.8% across age groups (Lowest in >58 yrs and highest in 36-46 yrs age group), People who exercised (recreational) were not active in other domains.
Krishnan A et al. [23], India 2003-2004 Sample size 2828, (Males 1359, Females 1469), Age 15-64 yrs, Rural, Multistage sampling WHO STEPS like survey Inactivity prevalence was 34.2%* (Males - 22.2%, Females -45.5%) and women were more inactive in all domains; Inactivity more at leisure time (Males 85.2%, Females 97.3%), and less at transport (Males - 18.8%, Females 45.7%), Inactivity at work was Males - 57.2% and Females - 59.9%; Physical inactivity was highest in old age (55-64 yrs) and lowest at 35-45 yrs age group
Sugathan TN et al. [24], India, 2003 - 2004 Sample size 6579, (Males 2890, Females 3689), Age 30-74 yrs, Urban and rural, Stratified multistage cluster sampling Interviewer administered questionnaire, Inactive: Always, carrying out only light/sedentary activities in work + leisure + travel, Inactivity calculation based on a Composite index including work + leisure Inactivity prevalence was 22.3% (Males - 22.9%, Females - 21.9% ), Urban residents were more inactive (corporation 25.6%, municipality 20.7%) than rural 21.8%, Inactivity more at leisure time (74.0%), less at work (31.0%), Young (30-34 yrs) were more inactive (24.7%, RR = 1.0) than old (65–74 yrs) (18.9%, RR = 0.7), Skilled workers (28.5%, RR = 3.0) and professionals (32.0%, RR = 3.3) more inactive than unskilled (12.3%, RR = 1.0).
Agrawal VK et al. [25], India, Study year not reported, Published 2006 Sample size 416, (Males 218, Females 188), Age >30 yrs, Rural, Random sampling Interviewer administered questionnaire, Inactive: Doing no or very little activity at work, home or transport and discretionary time Inactivity prevalence was 18.5%, There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of inactivity, In males inactivity was 19.7%, while in females it was 17.0%
Sullivan R et al. [22], India, 2005-2007 Sample size 6,447, (Males 3,768, Females 2,679), Age 17-76 yrs, Urban, rural and migrants, Mixed sampling Interviewer administered questionnaire, PAL was calculated and categorized, PAL <1.40 extremely inactive, PAL 1.40–1.69 sedentary/lightly active Extreme inactivity prevalence 9.7% (Males 7.4%, Females 12.9%), Sedentary/lightly active prevalence 62.1% (Males 58.8%, Females 66.7%)
Mittal M et al. [26], India, Year not reported, Published 2011 Sample size 520, (Males 260, Females 260), Age 20-50 yrs, Urban and rural, Random sampling Interviewer administered questionnaire, Inactive: Sedentary job and no physical exercise or cycling, Moderately inactive: Sedentary job and some but <1 hour physical exercise and/or cycling per week OR Standing job and no physical exercise or cycling Prevalence of inactivity 29.4%* (Males 12.7%, Females 46.1%, Urban 29.6%, Rural 29.2%), Prevalence of moderate inactivity 21.5%,* (Males 25.7%, Females 17.3%, Urban 30.0%, Rural 13.1%), Inactivity was more in Urban and in females, Urban females waist circumference reduced (p < 0.05) with increased physical activity, BMI showed a steady decline from inactivity to activity
Haldiya KR et al. [27], India, Study year not reported, Published 2010 Sample size 1,825, (Males 650, Females 1175), Age >20 yrs, Rural population Interviewer administered questionnaire, Sedentary lifestyle: those who had never felt increase heart/respiratory rate after work continued at least for 10 minutes 40.0% had a sedentary lifestyle (Males 40.8%, Females 39.7%)
Agrawal R et al. [28], India, 2009-2010 Sample size 544, (Males:Females - 1:1), Age >45 yrs, Urban and rural, Multi stage simple random sampling Interviewer administered questionnaire, Inactivity: Exercise <30 min/day Exercise <30 min/d 88.4% (Urban 88.7%, Rural 88.1%), Prevalence of hypertension increased with lack of exercise, Prevalence of inactivity 60.1% (Males 52.1%, Females 69.8%)
Khuwaja AK and, Kadir [29], Pakistan, Study year not reported, Published 2010 Sample size 534, (Males 292, Females 242), Age 25–64 yrs, Urban, Systematic random sampling International Physical Activity Questionnaire Females were significantly more inactive than males (OR: 2.1, 95% CI 1.5–3.1, p < 0.001)
Arambepola C et al. [30], Sri Lanka, 2004 Sample size 1,400, (Males 720, Females 680), Age 20–64 yrs, Urban and rural, Multi-stage stratified sampling International Physical Activity Questionnaire Prevalence of inactivity 31.8%* (Males 38.5%, Females 24.7%), Inactivity in urban adults 35.2% (Males 41.0%, Females 29.0), Inactivity in rural adults (Males 35.0%, Females 19.0%), Physical inactivity had a significant association with high BMI among women irrespective of their urban or rural living
Katulanda P et al. [31], Sri Lanka, 2005-2006 Sample size 4,485, (Males 1,772, Females 2,713), Age >18 yrs, Urban and rural, Multi-stage random cluster sampling International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version Prevalence of inactivity 11.0% (Males 14.6%, Females 8.7%)
  1. * - calculated from available data; NR – Not reported; NA – Not applicable.