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Table 3 Multivariable associations between baseline characteristics and health behaviours at one year in the ADDITION-Plus cohort

From: Predictors of change in objectively measured and self-reported health behaviours among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: longitudinal results from the ADDITION-Plustrial cohort

Potential predictors PAEE (kJ/kg/d), n = 378 Plasma vitamin C (μmol/l), n = 363 Self-reported physical activity (MET h/d), n = 390 Self-reported fat intake (g/d), n = 390 Self-reported energy intake (kcal/d), n = 390 Self-reported fruit intake (g/d), n = 365 Self-reported vegetable intake (g/d), n = 358
Socio-demographic characteristics        
Age (years) −0.72 (−0.98, -0.47)*** 0.3 (−0, 0.6) −0.06 (−0.16, 0.33) −0.43 (−0.72, -0.13)** −6.62 (−13.2, -0.05)* −1.17 (−4.33, 1.98) −0.52 (−2.54, 1.49)
Sex (women = ref.) 10.9 (7.35, 14.51)*** −5.52 (−9.81, -1.22)* 0.46 (−0.88, 1.81) 0.19 (−4.39, 4.01) 9.94 (−83.91, 103.78) −37 (−82.36, 8.34) −4.46 (−34.01, 25.09)
Social class (managerial/professional occ. = ref.)        
Intermediate 0.63 (−3.53, 4.79) 0.36 (−4.69, 5.41) 0.41 (−1.13, 1.95) 0.82 (−4.17, 5.81) 11.4 (−99.3, 122.07) −16.9 (−70.09, 36.34) −0.09 (−33.85, 33.66)
Routine/manual 2.26 (−1.47, 6) −3.24 (−7.7, 1.23) 0.21 (−1.18, 1.59) −1.36 (−5.75, 3.03) −72.3 (−169.61, 24.97) −4.5 (−52.03, 43.02) −3.06 (−33.0, 26.87)
Clinical characteristics        
Waist circumference (cm) −0.33 (−0.45, -0.2)*** −0.1 (−0.26, 0.05) −0.03(−0.07, 0.02) −0.11 (−0.26, 0.04) −2.97 (−6.28, 0.34) 0.49 (−1.11, 2.08) −0.32 (−1.33, 0.69)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) −0.18 (−0.31, -0.06)** −0.05 (−0.2, 0.1) 0.02 (−0.02, 0.07) −0.09 (−0.24, 0.06) −1.2 (−4.49, 2.08) 0.9 (−0.68, 2.49) −0.01 (−1.01, 0.98)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 0.23 (0, 0.46)* 0.03 (−0.25, 0.31) −0.01 (−0.1, 0.07) 0.06 (−0.21, 0.34) 0.68 (−5.34, 6.69) −1.56 (−4.45, 1.32) −0.24 (−2.06, 1.58)
HbA1c (%) −0.25 (−1.36, 0.86) −0.29 (−1.67, 1.09) 0.31 (−0.11, 0.72) −0.37 (−1.71, 0.98) −16.0 (−45.67, 13.67) −0.95 (−15.41, 13.51) −1.77 (−11.64, 8.1)
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 0.37 (−1.22, 1.96) −1.61 (−3.54, 0.33) −0.28 (−0.88, 0.32) −0.72 (−2.62, 1.18) −32.8 (−74.95, 9.31) −18.9 (−39.15, 1.45) 3.91 (−9.19, 17.02)
Diabetes diagnosis (clinically diagnosed = ref.) 2.91 (−0.59, 6.42) 6.09 (1.74, 10.43)** 1.04 (−0.27, 2.35) −4.9 (−9.21, -0.6)* −56.5 (−151.76, 38.81) 74.2 (27.92, 120.41)** 10.2 (−19.43, 39.82)
Psychological characteristics        
Intention        
Physical activity −0.37 (−3.41, 2.68) - 0.69 (−0.46, 1.84) - - - -
Lower fat diet - −1.89 (−5.68, 1.89) - −1.01 (−4.81, 2.78) −26.2 (−110.29, 57.83) −20.8 (−62.08, 20.44) 22.5 (−3.14, 48.04)
Perceived behavioural control        
Physical activity 1.04 (−1.47, 3.55) - 0.04 (−0.9, 0.98) - - - -
Lower fat diet - 0.22 (−2.86, 3.3) - −0.98 (−4.04, 2.09) −7.52 (−75.32, 60.27) 17.7 (−16.12, 51.41) −5.49 (−26.22, 15.24)
Behavioural beliefs        
Physical activity −1.06 (−4.13, 2.02) - −0.7 (−1.84, 0.43) - - - -
Lower fat diet - 0.06 (−3.67, 3.79) - 0.62 (−3.11, 4.35) 19.6 (−62.88, 102.09) −5.21 (−45.29, 34.87) −8.66 (−34.28, 16.95)
Illness perception (1 to 5)        
Diabetes treatment control 2.33 (−1.25, 5.91) 3.7 (−0.64, 8.04) −0.38 (−1.71, 0.94) 0.24 (−3.99, 4.48) 9.49 (−84.44, 103.43) −3.08 (−48.07, 41.92) 3.54 (−24.58, 31.67)
Diabetes consequences 1.51 (−1, 4.03) 1.43 (−1.65, 4.51) 0.58 (−0.38, 1.53) −1.8 (−4.89, 1.29) 6.62 (−61.81, 75.04) 21.8 (−11.66, 55.18) 13.1 (−7.54, 33.73)
State anxiety (20 to 80) −0.07 (−0.22, 0.08) −0.12 (−0.3, 0.06) −0.04 (−0.09, 0.02) −0.06 (−0.25, 0.12) −1.2 (−5.26, 2.86) −0.81 (−2.74, 1.13) 0.15 (−1.07, 1.38)
Self-rated health (1 to 5) −0.58 (−2.73, 1.58) −0.6 (−3.19, 1.98) −0.19 (−1.0, 0.62) 0.46 (−2.08, 3) −2.66 (−59.09, 53.76) −28 (−55.33, -0.69)* −10.3 (−27.9, 7.36)
  1. Values are unstandardised b-coefficients (95% confidence interval).
  2. All models were simultaneously adjusted for included predictors as well as for baseline behaviour (except for PAEE) and trial arm.
  3. PAEE, physical activity energy expenditure.
  4. -, not included in the model.
  5. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.00.1.