Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of selected intervention studies

From: A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

Study Participants Measures Comparisons Duration Outcomes
Intervention/s Comparison
Arao et al. (2007) Non-randomised Control trial · 177 men with risk factors for chronic disease Primary: Intervention - LiSM-PAN Group (individual counselling based on stages of change and environmental and social support, work- and home-based) Control group (Standard Conventional Healthcare (SCH)) 6 mths · LiSM PAN group: showed significant positive changes in leisure time exercise energy expenditure (LEEE) (mean inter-group difference: 400.6 kcal/week, 95% CI: 126.1, 675.0 kcal/week).
Japan · Wt 68.3 kg (+/- 10.1) · leisure time exercise energy expenditure (LEEE) · Individual counselling: 6 month program based on stages of change. 15 mins of one-on-onecounselling on PA and dietary goals. PA goal was specific number of steps/day based on stage of change. Those already active/maintaining given additional PA goals. Structured counselling given by trained professionals · Generic printed materials on exercise, diet and cooking provided   · No mean inter-group differences reported for dietary habits. (p= 0.432)
  · Ht 166.2 cm (+/- 6.1) · Secondary: · Environmental and social support: walking course and exercise facilities installed at workplace, caloric content of lunch menu displayed at workplace café, providing better nutrition through consultation with café manger. · no counselling nor environmental/social support   · No significant between group difference in changes in dietary fat; fruit and vegetables intakes (0.071-0.238)
  · 40-59 years · VO2max · Increasing support from family/at home by encouraging participants to discuss health and strategies to improve health with family, men asked to participate in PA with family/spouse, spouse given printed materials on healthy diet/cooking · Participants given written feedback and recommendations from results of medical check-up and baseline data.   · Greater decreases in BMI, SBP, LDL in intervention vs. control. [<0.001]
   · Intake of fats, fruits and vegetables assessed by FFQ).   Occupational nurse encouraged participants to follow recommendations   · Compliance
   ·BMI     · Retention rate for LiSM-PAN group program = 95.2%.
   · BP     · average rate of compliance was 97.1% in monthly counselling
   · Blood glucose     · average achievements of basic target were 86.7% for self-monitoring on the walking steps and 54.7% for controlling dietary targeted activities
   · Lipid parameters     
Booth et al. (2008) · 54 free-living, overweight or obese males Primary: WELL intervention (Weight-loss; exercise; lower blood pressure and longevity intervention group) delivered face to face + 2 2 telephone calls by trained research staff overseen by dietician Low Fat group (Based on the healthy weight guide by the National Heart Foundation (2002) – no prescribed food volume given) and delivered face to face + 2 telephone calls by trained research staff overseen by dietician 12 wks Overall:
Randomised controlled trial · Mean age 48 years · Changes in dietary intake of: i) fruit, ii) vegetables, iii) dairy) · Print based material provided on DASH diet with a weight loss focus. · Generalised written information in the booklet recommended: a) limit high and full-fat foods, b) consume more fruit, vegetables and other plant based products, c) consume fish and legumes at least twice a week.   · 86% retention rate
Australia   · Other measures · Daily targets set: Participants required to consume at least 4 serves of vegetables, at least 4 serves of fruit, at least 3 serves of dairy and a maximum of 4 serves (4tspn) MUFA. · Other recommendations: limit high fat foods, choose low fat or reduced fat products, and use a variety of plant based oils for cooking.   · No Difference in mean weight loss between groups 5-6% of TBW lost.
   · BP (taken daily by volunteer) · Weekly targets set: Participants required to consume 4 serves of nuts and seeds, at least 3 serves of fish, 1 serve of legumes, max 2 serves of red meat. · Self monitoring through 3-day food diaries completed weekly – each day for 3 consecutive days. Diaries reviewed   · WELL diet achieved a greater Fruit; Vegetable and Dairy intake compared to LG Diet group measured by food group diaries (p<0.01)
   · Weight (taken at each face-to-face visit) · No restriction on rice/pasta/wholegrain bread and lower-salt cereals as long as they were consuming the volume of other foods listed above.    · (-7.6 7.7 mmHg SBP and -5.4 4.9 mmHg DBP) than LF group (-2.1 6.4 mmHg SBP and
   · Height - baseline · Self monitoring through 3-day food diaries completed weekly –each day for 3 consecutive days. Diaries reviewed by study staff.    · 1.0 4.1 mmHg DBP (difference in BP change between groups P = 0.001).
   · BMI     
Braekman et al (1999) · 638 middle aged men Primary: Low-Fat Dietary Intervention Control sites (no access to support) 3 mths · 82% retention rate at 3 months
Randomised controlled trial (4 worksites randomised) · Mean age 43.7 (+/-6.6) · Dietary Habits (24 hr food record) · Participants informed of baseline screening measures at 2 weeks through individual counselling session and informed of personal risk factor profiles · Provided written summary of risk factor profile with nil dietary education/information provided. Exception for those with abnormal values who were referred to their GP.   · Significant reduction in total energy and total fat intake in the intervention group (p<0.05) but no difference for percent of energy from types of fat.
Belgium · Mean BMI 26.5 kg/m2 · Serum Lipid levels · Mass media used within Intervention sites to stress the link between Cholesterol and heart disease and the role of a low fat diet.    · Intervention group increased protein and carbohydrate more than the control (p<0.05)
   · Secondary: · Poster displays and leaflets providing strategies on how to reduce dietary fat provided at intervention sites    · BMI increased by 0.3 kg/m2 in the intervention group vs. controls (p<0.001)
   · (Self administered Health Questionnaire (smoking; PAL and medical history) · Video outlining importance of reducing blood cholesterol by reducing dietary fat intake presented with question and answer time at a worksite safety meeting    · Nutrition knowledge significantly greater in the intervention groups (p<0.001) No significant effect for total cholesterol between groups
   · Nutrition knowledge (10-item questionnaire) · Participants offered several non-compulsory dietician-led 2 hour dietary group education sessions at the worksite out of work hours    · HDL cholesterol increased in the control group compared to intervention group (p<0.001)
   · WHR · Summary newsletter provided at the end of the study to reinforce dietary messages    
   · BMI     
Leslie et al. (2002) · 122 overweight/ obese males Primary Energy Deficit diet (ED) (a 2512 kJ (600 kcal deficit)with individualized energy prescriptions Generalised low calorie diet (6279 kJ=1500 kcal) 24 wks · Weight loss significant in both ED and GLC groups but no difference between groups in weight loss or maintenance.
(12 wks intervention + 12 wk maintenance)
Randomised controlled trial · 18-55 years · Weight loss 1. ED with meat 3. GLC (general low calorie) meat   · No effect of meat vs no meat on weight loss or biochemical measure between groups
United Kingdom   · Weight loss maintenance 2. ED no meat 4. GLC no meat   · Significantly more attrition from the GLC group than the ED group.
   · Secondary All attended initial dietary consult (60 minute) delivered by dietician and face-to-face reviews every 2 weeks for 20 minutes for first 12 weeks.   · 69% Retention at 24 weeks.
All groups underwent 12 weeks weight loss followed by 12 week maintenance phase
All contacted by email at 2 week intervals and self reported anthropometric and dietary information requested.
   · Lipids (plasma)     
   · Dietary Habits     
  1. Note: BMI= Body Mass Index; WC = Waist Circumference; BP = blood pressure, FFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire, LEEE = leisure time exercise energy expenditure; WHR = Waist to hip ratio.