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Table 1 Sample characteristcs

From: Direct and indirect associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10–12 year-old European children: testing the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project

  Sex  
  Boys (n=2279) Girls (n=2673) Total sample (n=4952)
Overall (%)1 46.0 54.0 100.0
Age (years; mean, sd)2 11.7 (0.7) 11.6 (0.7)* 11.6 (0.7)
Dual parental status (%)1 93.2 93.3 93.3
Married/living with partner (%)1 87.6 87.3 87.4
Siblings (%)1 83.0 83.1 83.0
Respondent’s highest level of education (%)1    
  < 12 years 16.4 16.6 16.5
  12–13 years 23.3 24.1 23.7
  ≥ 14 years 60.3 59.3 59.8
Native language most often spoken at home? 1 94.9 94.2 94.5
Country (%)1    
  Belgium 12.9 13.7 13.4
  Greece 13.5 14.2 13.9
  Hungary 16.2 18.1 17.2
  The Netherlands 7.2 6.7 7.0
  Norway 16.0 15.5 15.8
  Slovenia 18.6 17.9 18.2
  Spain 15.6 13.8 14.6
Sports participation    
Participation ≥ 30mins/wk (%)1 61.7 46.4*** 53.4
Family environment (mean, sd) 2    
  Number of PA equipment items [0–8] 5.2 (2.1) 5.5 (1.9)*** 5.3 (2.0)
  Financial support [0–4] 3.0 (1.3) 2.9 (1.4)*** 2.9 (1.3)
  Logistic support [0–4] 2.8 (1.3) 2.6 (1.4)*** 2.7 (1.3)
  Emotional support [0–4] 3.5 (0.9) 3.4 (1.0)*** 3.4 (1.0)
  Reinforcement 2.9 (1.1) 2.9 (1.1) 2.9 (1.1)
  Parental modelling (hr/week) [0–10] 2.7 (2.6) 2.5 (2.5)* 2.6 (2.5)
  Co-participation [0–7] 1.4 (1.3) 1.4 (1.4) 1.4 (1.4)
Cognitions (mean, sd) 2    
  Attitude [−2;2] 1.9 (0.4) 1.8 (0.4)** 1.9 (0.4)
  Beliefs about weight gain [−2;2] 1.0 (1.3) 1.0 (1.3) 1.0 (1.3)
  Enjoyment [−2;2] 1.8 (0.6) 1.7 (0.6)*** 1.8 (0.6)
  Perceived behavioural control [−2;2] 1.5 (0.8) 1.3 (0.9)*** 1.4 (0.8)
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
  2. 1 Chi-square test of significance between boys and girls.
  3. 2 Independent sample t-tests between boys and girls.