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Table 2 Summary of characteristics of included studies with theoretically relevant variables for conducting moderator analyses

From: Do interventions to promote walking in groups increase physical activity? A meta-analysis

Studies by author and date order Group characteristics Setting Design Delivered mode Duration and timing of walking in groups intervention Assessment of physical activity Measurements Gender Targeted age Delivered by
[36] Kriska et al. 1986, [56] Pereira et al. 1998 Postmenopausal women (n = 229) Mean age: 57.5 Community RCT Training sessions Newsletter Twice per week with goal to reach 60 minutes per session, for 8 weeks Pedometers Paffenbarger questionnaire (blocks walked)* Monthly log sheets Multiple item scale Baseline 1 year 2 years Only women Middle age adults Lay people
[37] McAuley et al. 1994 Adults (n = 228) Mean age: 54.52 Community RCT Training sessions Three times per week starting with 10-15 min and progressing to 40 min, for 5 months. Diaries Baseline 5 months Both genders Middle age adults Experts with the research area and the population
[57] McAuley et al. 2003
[38] Rogers 1997 African American women (n = 35) Mean age: 51.6 Community Non-RCTs Training session Discussion groups Once per week for 60 to 90 minutes, for 5 weeks 7-days recall physical activity questionnaire developed by Steinhardt and Dishman (1989 modified by Blair 1984) * Walking calendars Baseline 5 weeks 7 weeks Only women Middle age adults Researcher
[39] Sullivan et al. 1998 Older adults with chronic diseases (n = 52) Mean age: 71.2 Hospital RCT Discussion group Self help manual for participants Three times per week for approximately 90 minutes, for 8 weeks AIMS physical activity subscale* Diaries Self report questions Baseline 8 weeks 1 year Both genders Older adults Researcher
[40] Resnick 2002 Older adults (n = 34) Mean age:88 Retirement community RCT One-to-one visit Three times per week for 20 minutes, for 6 months. YPAS (interviewed administered questionnaire) Diaries * Baseline, 2 months 6 months Only women Older adults Experts with the research area and the population
[41] Coull et al. 2004 Older adults with ischemic heart disease (n = 289) Mean age: 67.5 Hospital RCT Training sessions Once per month for approx 2 hour, for 1 year Questions about previous week’s physical activity Baseline 1 year Both genders Older adults Lay volunteers
[13] Fisher et al. 2004, [58] Fisher et al. 2004a, [59] Fisher et al. 2002, [60] Michael et al. 2009, [61] Rowland et al. 2004 Older adults (n = 527) Mean age: 74.5 Community (Neighbourhood) RCT Training sessions (for leaders) Discussion group Self help manual Monthly newsletter Three times per week for approximately 1 hour, for 6 months Multiple item scale (3 items measuring the frequency of neighbourhood walking activity) Baseline 3 months 6 months Both genders Older adults Lay people
[42] Nguyen et al. 2002, [55] Nguyen et al. 2005 Adults (n = 575) Mean age: 54.6 Community Pre post study Newsletter for walkers Training session for walk leaders Guide for walk leaders Walking kit Two to three times per week for 12 months (duration of sessions not given) Multiple item scale (duration and frequency of physical activity) Baseline 12 months Both genders Middle age adults Lay volunteers
[43] Staten et al. 2005 Adults at risk for chronic diseases (n = 432) Mean age: 52.7 Community Pre post study Self help manuals for walk leaders Training session on preventing chronic diseases Three times per week for 1 year (duration of sessions not given) MLPAQ Baseline 12 weeks Both genders Middle age adults Lay people
[44] Banks-Wallace et al. 2007 African American women at risk for CVD (n = 36) Mean age: 50.3 Community (Neighbourhood) Pre post study Discussion groups Self help manuals (Stanford Walking Kit) Twice per week for 1 year (duration of sessions not given) Pedometers * CAPSPAQ Diaries/ walking calendars Baseline 12 months 18 months Only women Middle age adults Researcher/ professional story teller
[62] Banks-Wallace et al. 2005
[45] Hogue 2007 African American women (n = 46) Mean age: 46 Community (Church) Non-RCTs education meetings- sessions educational material remind calls Daily for 10 weeks Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA I & RAPA II) Pedometer Six minute walk test Physical Activity Minutes Log Sheet * Buddy Support Log: minutes spent exercising with buddy Baseline 10 weeks Only women Middle age adults Research assistant (faculty members and graduate students) – did not participated as subjects
[46] Estabrooks et al. 2008 Adults (n = 380) Mean age: 46 Community Non-RCTs Not stated 8 weeks intervention Two questions, which assesses moderate physical activity* Survey (centre for disease and prevention behavioral risk factor surveillance survey) Baseline to 8 weeks, Baseline to 6 months 8 weeks to 6 months Both genders Middle age adults Ncl
[63] Burke et al. 2010,
[47] Jancey et al. 2008; [64] Jancey et al. 2008a, [65] Jancey et al. 2006, [66] Jancey et al. 2007, [67] Jancey et al. 2011 Older adults (n = 573) Mean age: 69.2 Community (Neighbourhood) Non-RCTs Training sessions Self help manuals Twice per week started with 10 minutes and built up to 45 min and gradually increase intensity, for 6 months IPAQ1 Baseline 3 months 6 months Both genders Older adults Lay volunteers
[48] Krieger et al. 2009 Adults (n = 106) Mean age: ncl Community Pre – post study Walk kit from California centre of physical activity Five times per week for 1 hour (which varied depending on walker’s capacity) Behavioural risk factor surveillance system questionnaire   Both genders Middle age adults Lay people2
[49] Zoellner et al. 2010 Adults (n = 112) Mean age: 44 Community Non-RCTs Training sessions Manual Once per month for approx 90 min education session and walk throughout the week Face-to-face administered questionnaire including past week physical activity recall Pedometer * Baseline 3 months 6 months Both genders Middle age adults Lay volunteers
[68] Zoellner et al. 2007
[69] Zollenner et al. 2009
[70] Zoellner et al. 2011
[71] Powers 2007
[50] Takeda 2011 Adults (n = 47) Mean age: 59.7 Community Non-RCTs Group instruction classes- lectures Newsletters 140 minutes sessions for 8 weeks (number of sessions not specified) Pedometer with an accelerometer Baseline 2 months 6 months Both genders Middle age adults Staff
[51] Lee 2012 African American and Hispanic or Latina women (n = 322) Mean age: 45.7 Community RCT Sessions 6 sessions for a period of 6 months with the goal to gradually increase walking to recommended guidelines IPAQ Accelerometer protocol * Baseline 6 months Only women Middle age adults Trained graduate students in psychology, public health or education
[52] Maki 2012 Older adults at risk of mental decline (n = 150) Mean age: 72 Community RCT Group meetings Once a week for 90 minutes for 3 months. Pedometer Baseline 3 months Both genders Older adults Registered physical trainers or health nurses
[53] Thomas 2012 Older adults (n = 399) Mean age: 72 Community centre for older people RCT Group-based, face-to-face counselling and advice Monthly telephone calls about 15 min Once per month for 12 months with goal to reach 30 minutes three to five days per week IPAQ * Pedometer Baseline 6 months 12 months Both genders Older adults Staff
  1. List of abbreviation: CAPSPAQ: Cross Cultural Activity Participation Study Physical Activity Questionnaire; IPAQ: International Physical Activity Questionnaire; MLPAQ: Minnesota Leisure time Physical Activity Questionnaire; YPAS: Yale Physical Activity Survey; AIMS: Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale.
  2. Lay people = people who received basic training to deliver the intervention, that is not part of their professional role.
  3. Professionals = people who have previous education and work on behaviour change interventions as part of their professional.
  4. * used as a basis for calculated effect sizes in meta-analysis.