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Table 1 Baseline and change scores for parental and family covariates and child outcomes

From: Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

Family food environment variables Maximum possible score Cronbach alpha (α) Baseline1 Change2  
    Mean SD Mean SD Min Max Effect Size3
Model 2: Knowledge and attitudes          
  Dairy messages 3   1.3 0.9 0.5 1.1 -2.0 3.0 0.43
  Nutrition knowledge 113 0.81 75 12 3 8 -29 21 0.33
  Perceived responsibility 5 0.94 4.2 0.9 0.0 0.8 -2.0 4.0 0.00
  Perceived fresh food availability 5 0.81 4.2 0.6 -0.1 0.6 -1.5 2.0 -0.09
  Perceived adequacy of child's diet 5 0.93 3.9 0.8 0.0 0.6 -1.0 4.0 0.08
  Parent’s meal preparation views 5 0.78 3.8 0.6 -0.1 0.6 -2.4 1.2 -0.16
  Concern for weight 5 0.87 2.3 1.2 -0.1 0.9 -3.0 4.0 -0.13
Model 3: Parent shaping practices          
  Teaching and encouraging child about food 5 0.80 4.2 0.4 0.0 0.4 -0.8 1.2 -0.06
  Restriction 5 0.81 3.4 0.9 0.1 0.8 -1.5 3.8 0.07
  Pressure to eat 5 0.72 2.5 1.0 -0.2 0.8 -2.8 2.3 -0.20
  Monitoring 5 0.96 4.0 0.9 -0.1 0.7 -2.0 2.3 -0.14
Model 4: Parent behaviours and role modelling          
  Food involvement 7 0.62 5.0 0.6 0.0 0.7 -2.7 3.5 0.05
  Family involvement in meal preparation 5 0.60 2.6 0.6 -0.1 0.4 -1.3 1.0 -0.19
  Role modelling eating behaviours 5 0.83 4.1 0.7 0.0 0.4 -0.8 1.6 -0.03
  TV interruptions to meals 5 0.87 2.7 1.4 -0.2 0.7 -3.5 2.0 -0.24
Energy (kJ)    8040 1721 -256 1573 -3985 5158 -0.16
Saturated fat (% of energy)    15.3 2.7 -2.1 3.7 -13 5 -0.57
  1. 1 Baseline differences between treatment groups was assessed using Independent t test. *Significance p<0.05.
  2. 2 Change=follow-up minus baseline. Therefore a positive change value reflects an increase from baseline to follow-up.
  3. 3 Effect size estimate = mean change/change in SD [30].