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Table 3 Multiple linear hierarchical regression results for baseline family food environment characteristics and change in percentage of energy from saturated fat

From: Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

  β1 Std β 95% CI P value Adjusted R2 Model P value
Model 1a Child characteristics       0.05 0.049
  Child gender 0.4 0.1 -0.9 1.7 0.55   
  Child age (years) 0.3 0.2 0.04 0.5 0.02   
  Baseline BMI z score -0.8 -0.3 -1.4 -0.2 0.01   
  Household income2 -0.3 -0.1 -0.8 0.2 0.27   
  Caregiver education2 0.1 0.01 -0.8 0.9 0.88   
  Caregiver BMI (kg/m2) -0.01 -0.02 -0.1 0.1 0.82   
Model 2a3 Knowledge and attitudes       0.12 0.006
  Dairy messages (/3) 0.7 0.2 -0.1 1.4 0.07   
  Nutrition knowledge (/113) -0.0001 -0.0004 -0.1 0.1 0.10   
  Perceived responsibility (/5) 0.8 0.2 0.1 1.5 0.03   
  Perceived fresh food availability (/5) -1.1 -0.2 -2.2 0.0 0.05   
  Perceived adequacy of child's diet (/5) -0.2 -0.04 -1.0 0.6 0.64   
  Parent’s meal preparation views (/5) -0.4 -0.1 -1.5 0.6 0.41   
  Concern for weight (/5) 0.02 0.01 -0.6 0.6 0.95   
Model 3a3 Parent shaping practices       0.16 <0.001
  Teaching encouraging child about food (/5) -0.7 -0.1 -2.3 0.9 0.42   
  Restriction (/5) 1.0 0.3 0.3 1.8 0.01   
  Pressure to eat (/5) 0.9 0.3 0.3 1.6 0.01   
  Monitoring (/5) -0.7 -0.2 -1.6 0.1 0.08   
Model 4a3 Parent behaviours and role modelling       0.07 0.049
  Food involvement (/7) 0.3 0.04 -0.8 1.3 0.61   
  Family involvement in meal preparation (/5) 1.2 0.2 0.1 2.3 0.03   
  Role modelling eating behaviours (/5) 0.7 0.1 -0.3 1.8 0.18   
  TV interruptions to meals (/5) 0.1 0.1 -0.4 0.7 0.62   
  1. 1 Beta value represents the strength of the association with change in saturated fat (negative value for change is desirable). Therefore negative Beta means higher levels of the food environment construct were associated with greater reduction in saturated fat. Positive Beta means lower levels of the family food environment construct were associated with a greater change in saturated fat.
  2. 2 Highest level of education completed (4 categories: primary school or less, some/completed high school, vocational/trade qualification, tertiary degree) and total household income (4 categories) were treated as continuous variables.
  3. 3 Analyses account for child (gender, age and BMI z score) and family demographics (household income, parent education and BMI).