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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants randomly selected from communities: COMMUNICATE Study

From: A community-wide campaign to promote physical activity in middle-aged and elderly people: a cluster randomized controlled trial

  Control Intervention p valuea
   All Group A Group FM Group AFM  
Cluster       
  No. of clusters 3 9 3 3 3  
  No. of residents 5235 14721 3700 5553 5468 0.64
  No. of residents aged 40–79 years 2917 7493 2132 2743 2618 0.93
  Population density, mean ± SD, /km2 131 ± 137 273 ± 371 433 ± 641 145 ± 46 240 ± 268 0.52
Evaluation participants (eligible respondents)       
  No. of participants (eligible response rate) 1078 (71.9) 3336 (74.1) 1107 (73.8) 1107 (73.8) 1122 (74.8) 0.85
Male 510 (47.3) 1540 (46.2) 522 (47.2) 517 (46.7) 501 (44.7) 0.51
Age, years       
  Mean ± SD 61.0 ± 10.6 60.7 ± 10.5 61.2 ± 10.7 60.1 ± 10.4 60.6 ± 10.5 0.29
  40-59 471 (43.7) 1514 (45.4) 477 (43.1) 522 (47.2) 515 (45.9)  
  60-79 607 (56.3) 1822 (54.6) 630 (56.9) 585 (52.8) 607 (54.1)  
Body mass index, kg/m2       
  Mean ± SD 22.5 ± 3.2 22.6 ± 3.1 22.8 ± 3.2 22.3 ± 2.9 22.6 ± 3.0 0.68
  <18.5 83 (8.1) 226 (7.0) 62 (5.9) 88 (8.2) 76 (6.9)  
  ≥18.5- < 25 744 (72.2) 2352 (72.9) 770 (72.8) 804 (74.8) 778 (71.1)  
  ≥25 204 (19.8) 650 (20.1) 226 (21.4) 183 (17.0) 241 (22.0)  
Self-rated health       
  Excellent/good 878 (81.9) 2722 (82.7) 885 (80.8) 902 (83.0) 935 (84.3) 0.20
  Fair/poor 194 (18.1) 569 (17.3) 210 (19.2) 185 (17.0) 174 (15.7)  
Years of education, mean ± SD 11.5 ± 2.3 11.5 ± 2.4 11.5 ± 2.4 11.4 ± 2.3 11.5 ± 2.5 0.72
Employed 695 (69.6) 2101 (68.7) 665 (64.6) 711 (70.0) 725 (71.6) 0.58
Engagement in farming 552 (52.4) 1626 (49.7) 466 (42.7) 627 (58.2) 533 (48.4) 0.13
Chronic disease historyb 659 (61.1) 2059 (61.7) 679 (61.3) 673 (60.8) 707 (63.0) 0.73
Regular physical activityc 574 (64.6) 1745 (63.0) 614 (66.6) 526 (58.3) 605 (64.0) 0.40
Total walking time, mins/week       
  Median (interquartile range) 60 (0–210) 60 (0–200) 80 (0–210) 60 (0–180) 60 (0–200) 0.53
  ≥150 311 (37.7) 914 (36.4) 319 (38.1) 282 (34.1) 313 (37.0)  
Flexibility activity       
  Daily 253 (24.4) 772 (23.8) 276 (25.9) 214 (19.8) 282 (25.8) 0.45
  Not daily but occasionally 463 (44.7) 1548 (47.7) 524 (49.1) 518 (47.9) 506 (46.3)  
  Not at all 320 (30.9) 922 (28.4) 267 (25.0) 349 (32.3) 306 (28.0)  
Muscle-strengthening activity, days/week       
  Median (interquartile range) 0 (0–3) 0 (0–3) 1 (0–3) 0 (0–3) 0 (0–3) 0.99
  ≥2 348 (38.0) 1080 (37.7) 390 (40.9) 310 (33.0) 380 (39.2)  
Median (interquartile range) VAS pain score       
  Low back 5 (0–32) 8 (0–36) 8 (0–36) 9 (0–37) 7 (0–32) 0.11
  Knee 0 (0–7) 0 (0–13) 0 (0–15) 0 (0–11) 0 (0–12) 0.067
Chronic musculoskeletal paind       
  Low back 133 (13.1) 441 (14.1) 145 (13.9) 150 (14.5) 146 (13.8) 0.43
  Knee 95 (9.1) 360 (11.2) 115 (10.8) 122 (11.4) 123 (11.4) 0.062
  1. Note. Group A = aerobic activity; Group FM = flexibility and muscle-strengthening activities; Group AFM = aerobic, flexibility, and muscle-strengthening activities. VAS = visual analog scale. Figures are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise. Sample sizes (denominators) vary due to missing values.
  2. aComparison between control and intervention groups using the chi-square test for binary variables and Mann–Whitney U-test for categorical and continuous variables with non-normal distribution.
  3. bHaving the following disease history: hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hyperuricemia, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, kidney and urologic diseases, liver disease, gastrointestinal disease, endocrine disease, cancer.
  4. cEngagement in regular aerobic, flexibility, and/or muscle-strengthening activities. If respondents met any one of the following three conditions, the respondents were defined as “engaging in regular physical activity”: (1) engaging in 150 mins/week or more of walking, (2) engaging in daily flexibility activity, or (3) engaging 2 or more days/week in muscle-strengthening activities.
  5. dCurrent pain lasting longer than 3 months within the past 12 months.