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Table 3 Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of eating breakfast, lunch and dinner yesterday (compared to not eating the respective meals), never TV watching at breakfast, lunch and dinner (compared to watching TV at the respective meals, ¥) related to gender, ethnicity and parental education in the total ENERGY-sample and for each country

From: Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10–12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study

Total (N = 7915) Breakfast yesterday Lunch yesterday Dinner yesterday Never TV at breakfast Never TV at lunch Never TV at dinner
Gender (boys vs. girls) *1.2 (1.1-1.4) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 1.0 (0.8-1.3) *0.8 (0.7-0.9) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 1.0 (0.9-1.1)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native *1.4 (1.0-1.8) 0.8 (0.4-1.5) 1.0 (0.7-1.5) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) *1.4 (1.1-1.8) 1.0 (0.8-1.3)
Education (high vs. low) *1.7 (1.5-2.0) 1.2 (0.9-1.7) *1.5 (1.2-1.4) 1.1 (1.0-1.2) *1.2 (1.0-1.3) *1.2 (1.1-1.4)
Belgium
Gender (boys vs. girls) 1.6 (1.0-2.6) 2.3 (0.4-12.0) 0.8 (0.2-3.1) *0.7 (0.5-1.0) *0.7 (0.5-1.0) 1.0 (0.7-1.3)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native 1.1 (0.4-2.7) Na Na 1.2 (0.6-2.3) *2.0 (1.0-3.9) 1.3 (0.6-2.5)
Education (high vs. low) *2.0 (1.1-3.5) Na Na 1.4 (0.9-2.3) 1.3 (0.8-2.1) 1.2 (0.8-1.9)
Greece
Gender (boys vs. girls) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 0.6 (0.2-1.3) 0.9 (0.6-1.2) *0.7 (0.5-0.9) 0.9 (0.7-1.4) 1.2 (0.8-1.8)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native 0.9 (0.5-1.6) *6.8 (2.7-17.2) 0.8 (0.4-1.6) 1.4 (0.8-2.3) 0.9 (0.5-1.8) 1.2 (0.5-2.7)
Education (high vs. low) 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 0.7 (0.3-1.6) 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.0 (0.7-1.5) *1.5 (1.0-2.3)
Hungary
Gender (boys vs. girls) 1.6 (1.1-2.2) 1.7 (0.9-3.4) 1.1 (0.6-1.9) *0.7 (0.5-1.0) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 0.9 (0.6-1.3)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native 2.1 (0.8-5.8) Na Na 0.8 (0.3-2.3) 1.2 (0.4-3.5) 0.5 (0.2-1.5)
Education (high vs. low) 0.8 (0.5-1.1) 0.7 (0.4-1.3) 1.0 (0.6-1.6) *1.4 (1.1-2.0) *1.5 (1.1-2.0) 1.0 (0.7-1.5)
The Netherlands
Gender (boys vs. girls) 0.4 (0.1-1.5) 0.7 (0.2-2.4) Na 1.3 (0.8-2.0) 1.2 (0.8-1.9) 1.0 (0.6-1.5)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native 1Na Na Na 3.8 (0.7-20.1) 3.8 (0.7-19.1) 2.1 (0.5-8.5)
Education (high vs. low) Na 2.8 (0.8-9.0) Na *1.9 (1.0-3.4) 1.2 (0.7-2.1) 1.0 (0.6-1.8)
Norway
Gender (boys vs. girls) 1.0 (0.5-1.9) 0.9 (0.5-1.5) 1.0 (0.4-2.3) 0.9 (0.7-1.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 0.8 (0.6-1.1)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native 2.1 (0.6-7.5) Na Na *0.4 (0.1-1.0) 1.0 (0.4-2.5) 0.8 (0.3-1.9)
Education (high vs. low) *3.1 (1.6-5.9) 1.3 (0.8-2.4) 1.5 (0.6-3.9) *1.9 (1.3-2.8) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 1.4 (1.0-2.0)
Slovenia
Gender (boys vs. girls) 1.2 (0.9-1.7) 0.6 (0.3-1.4) 1.3 (0.9-2.0) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native 1.4 (0.8-2.4) Na 0.7 (0.3-1.7) 1.5 (0.9-2.7) *4.5 (2.3-8.6) 1.6 (0.8-3.0)
Education (high vs. low) *1.4 (1.0-1.9) 2.0 (0.9-4.6) 1.1 (0.7-1.6) *1.5 (1.1-2.1) *1.4 (1.1-1.9) 1.2 (0.9-1.6)
Spain
Gender (boys vs. girls) 0.9 (0.4-1.9) Na 1.1 (0.5-2.7) *0.7 (0.5-0.9) 0.7 (0.6-1.0) 1.0 (0.7-1.5)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native Na Na Na 1.2 (0.5-3.0) 1.2 (0.4-3.3) 4.4 (0.6-34.0)
Education (high vs. low) 1.0 (0.3-2.6) Na Na 1.2 (0.9-1.7) *1.6 (1.1-2.4) *1.7 (1.0-2.8)
Switzerland
Gender (boys vs. girls) 0.9 (0.6-1.5) Na 0.7 (0.3-1.7) 0.8 (0.4-1.3) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 0.8 (0.6-1.2)
Ethnicity (native vs. non-native 1.1 (0.6-2.0) Na 1.8 (0.7-4.6) *2.2 (1.2-3.8) *3.0 (1.9-5.0) 1.3 (0.8-2.1)
Education (high vs. low) 1.4 (0.9-2.4) Na 1.1 (0.5-2.8) 1.5 (0.9-2.7) 1.3 (0.8-2.2) 1.3 (0.9-1.9)
  1. *p ≤ 0.05.
  2. 1Na: Non-applicable due to fewer than 5 observations in subpopulations.
  3. ¥ adjusted for total TV time.