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Table 1 ‘Fit-4-Fun’ program content and alignment with theoretical constructs (Australia, 2011)

From: Social support from teachers mediates physical activity behavior change in children participating in the Fit-4-Fun intervention

Wk Session focus Session overview Behavior change strategies SCT / CMT constructs
1 Health-related fitness
(theory)
• Program rational • Provide information about PA & PF behaviors / link to health • Outcome expectations
• Defining PA & PF
• HRF & SRF • Develop self-monitoring skills (weekly PA timetable, talk test)
• PA guidelines • Social support (home & school)
• Analyzing current PA & PF behaviors • Provide social support and encouragement (to meet PA guidelines)
• Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task) • Self-efficacy
• Develop goal setting skills (HW task) • Intentions
• Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks • Motivation
• Enjoyment
• School environment
2 Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF)
(theory & practical)
• Provide information on CRF • Provide information about CRF & the role of the heart & lungs during PA • Outcome expectations
• Role of heart & lungs during PA • Participate in physical fitness practical laboratory • Self-efficacy
• Linking heart rate (HR) to PA intensity (lab) • Develop skills in self-monitoring (using heart rate) • Social support
• Linking CRF & health • Predicting consequences of actions • Motivation
• Making recommendations relating to PA and CF • Enjoyment
• Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task) • School environment
• Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks
3 Improving cardio-respiratory fitness
(practical)
• Revise CRF & measuring intensity using HR • Provide opportunity to participate in enjoyable physical activities in a supportive environment • Outcome expectations
• Participate in a practical PE lesson with a gross motor warm-up activity, dynamic stretches, skill development activities, modified games and cool-down • Maximal participation is provided for and encouraged • Social support
• Positive feedback is provided throughout the session • Self efficacy
• Students are to reflect on their performance and re-assess current PA behaviors • Motivation
• HR is monitored throughout the lesson • Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task) • Enjoyment
• Discussion about the type of PA and heart rate (high intensity / vigorous) • Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks • School environment
• Provide information on MF
4 Muscular Fitness (MF) (theory & practical) • Define MF • Link current PA behavior to MF • Outcome expectations
• Muscular strength Vs Muscular endurance • Develop goal setting skills / set targets to achieve • Social support
• Activities that require MF • Self-monitoring skills (PF tests) • Self-efficacy
• Measuring MF (lab) • Participation in non-threatening practical assessments • Intentions
• Motivation
• Enjoyment
• Linking MF & health
Improving MF
• Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task) • School environment
• Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks
5 Improving muscular fitness
(practical)
• Revise MF & measuring MF • Provide opportunity to participate in enjoyable physical activities in a supportive environment • Outcome expectations
• Participate in a practical PE lesson with a gross motor warm-up activity, dynamic stretches, MF circuit and cool-down • Maximal participation is provided for and encouraged • Social support
• Positive feedback is provided throughout the session • Self-efficacy
• HR is monitored throughout the lesson • Students are to reflect on their performance and re-assess current PA behaviors • Motivation
• Discussion about the type of PA and MF (e.g. resistance training) • Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task) • Enjoyment
• Develop goal setting skills (HW task) • School environment
• Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks
6 Flexibility (theory & practical) • Define flexibility • Provide information on flexibility • Outcome expectations
• Activities that require MF • Link current PA behavior to flexibility  
• Benefits of being flexible • Develop goal setting skills / set targets to achieve • Social support
• Types of stretching • Self-monitoring skills (PF tests) • Self-efficacy
• Improving flexibility (lab) • Participation in non-threatening practical assessments • Intentions
• Linking MF & health • Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task) • Motivation
• Improving MF • Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks • Enjoyment
• Predicting outcomes from changed MF behaviors • School environment
• Goal setting task
• Link flexibility to lifestyle behaviors
7 Improving flexibility (practical) • Revise flexibility and measuring flexibility • Provide opportunity to participate in enjoyable physical activities in a supportive environment • Outcome expectations
• Participate in a practical PE lesson with a gross motor warm-up activity, dynamic stretches, fun stretching routines and cool-down • Maximal participation is provided for and encouraged • Social support
• Positive feedback is provided throughout the session • Self-efficacy
• HR is monitored throughout the lesson • Students are to reflect on their performance and re-assess current PA behaviors • Motivation
• Discussion about the type of PA and improved flexibility • Link to lifelong behaviors • Enjoyment
• Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task) • School environment
• Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks
8 Improving health-related fitness through games
(practical)
• Revise HRF components • Provide opportunity to participate in enjoyable physical activities in a supportive environment • Outcome expectations
• Revise improving HRF
• Participate in a student-centered practical PE lesson where students adapt fun games to incorporate HRF • Maximal participation is provided for and encouraged • Self-efficacy
• HR is monitored throughout the lesson • Positive feedback is provided throughout the session • Social Support
• Discussion about the type of PA and improved HRF • Students learn skills in adapting PA to improve HRF • Motivation
• Summary of health benefits with improved HRF • Students are to reflect on their performance and re-assess current PA behaviors • Enjoyment
• Evaluation of ‘Fit-4-Fun’ • Link to lifelong behaviors • School environment
• Participate in age-specific “fun” physical fitness activities (HW task)
• Reflection Task (HW task)
• Provide equipment and task cards for use during recess and lunch breaks
1-8 ‘Fit-4-Fun’ Home Activities • Participation in an 8 week home activity program • Students participate in a range of fun activities with their parents / siblings • Outcome expectations
• 2 weekdays: MF, flexibility, CRF activities • Family provide social support throughout the program • Self-efficacy
• Students develop skills in self-monitoring and self-motivating • Social Support
• 1 weekday: fitness assessments • Students develop skills in goal setting & time management • Motivation Enjoyment
• Weekends: family activities & CRF assessment • Students develop skills in assessing & planning to improve the physical environment (assessment task)
• Weeks 1, 5, 8: Goal setting tasks
• Problem Solving Task (assessment)
1-8 Daily break time (recess and lunch) activities • Student-directed activities and tasks for use during school break times (e.g. small sided games, challenges and strength activities using playground equipment) • Provide opportunity to participate in enjoyable physical activities in a supportive environment • Self-efficacy
• Social Support
• Maximal participation is provided for and encouraged by peers • Enjoyment
• Laminated Task Cards and equipment supplied • Students learn skills in self-motivation / regulation Link to lifelong behaviors • School environment
   • Participation will be assessed via self-report at 3-month follow-up   
  1. Abbreviations: SCT Social Cognitive Theory, CMT Competence Motivation Theory, HRF Health-Related Fitness, HR Heart rate, CRF Cardio-respiratory fitness, MF Muscular fitness, PA Physical activity, PF physical fitness, HW homework.
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