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Table 1 Survey items assessing environmental perceptions of the neighbourhood, short item name and question source

From: Correlates of walking and cycling for transport and recreation: factor structure, reliability and behavioural associations of the perceptions of the environment in the neighbourhood scale (PENS)

Q1. Firstly, we’d like to ask you about the neighbourhood where you live. By neighbourhood we mean the area that you could walk to in 10-15 minutes from your home. How much do you agree with the following statements about your neighbourhood?
Survey item assessing perceptions of the neighbourhood environmenta Short item namec Measure Source: adapted from ALPHAd
a) Walking is unsafe because of the traffic Walking safe from traffic Safety from traffic Q5c
b) Cycling is unsafe because of the traffic Cycling safe from traffic Safety from traffic Q5d
c) There are no convenient routes for walking and cycling Convenient walk/cycle routes Street connectivity Q7a/b
d) There are not enough safe places to cross roads Safe to cross roads Safety from traffic Q5b
e) The area is unsafe because of the level of crime or anti-social behaviour Area safe from crime Safety from crime Q5e/f
f) The area is generally free from litter or graffitib Free from litter Aesthetics Q6b (response scale amended)
g) There are places to walk or cycle to, for example: shops, restaurants, leisure facilitiesb Places to walk/cycle to Destinations Q2a-g: collapsed to one item/response scale amended
h) There are open spaces, for example: parks, sports fields or beachesb Open spaces Destinations Q2h
i) There are pavements suitable for walkingb Pavements for walking Infrastructure Q3a
j) There are special lanes, routes or paths for cyclingb Cycle lanes/routes Infrastructure Q3c
k) There are many road junctionsb Many road junctions Street connectivity Q7c
l) There are many different routes for walking and cycling so I don’t have to go the same way every timeb Variety of walk/cycle routes Street connectivity Q7d
m) The area is pleasant for walking or cyclingb Pleasant to walk/cycle Aesthetics Q6a
  1. aAssessed using a five point Likert scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree; bItems were reverse coded for use in analyses; cItems were coded such that a high score = a highly supportive environment; dALPHA = European environmental questionnaire [20].