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Table 1 Survey items assessing environmental perceptions of the neighbourhood, short item name and question source

From: Correlates of walking and cycling for transport and recreation: factor structure, reliability and behavioural associations of the perceptions of the environment in the neighbourhood scale (PENS)

Q1. Firstly, we’d like to ask you about the neighbourhood where you live. By neighbourhood we mean the area that you could walk to in 10-15 minutes from your home. How much do you agree with the following statements about your neighbourhood?

Survey item assessing perceptions of the neighbourhood environmenta

Short item namec


Source: adapted from ALPHAd

a) Walking is unsafe because of the traffic

Walking safe from traffic

Safety from traffic


b) Cycling is unsafe because of the traffic

Cycling safe from traffic

Safety from traffic


c) There are no convenient routes for walking and cycling

Convenient walk/cycle routes

Street connectivity


d) There are not enough safe places to cross roads

Safe to cross roads

Safety from traffic


e) The area is unsafe because of the level of crime or anti-social behaviour

Area safe from crime

Safety from crime


f) The area is generally free from litter or graffitib

Free from litter


Q6b (response scale amended)

g) There are places to walk or cycle to, for example: shops, restaurants, leisure facilitiesb

Places to walk/cycle to


Q2a-g: collapsed to one item/response scale amended

h) There are open spaces, for example: parks, sports fields or beachesb

Open spaces



i) There are pavements suitable for walkingb

Pavements for walking



j) There are special lanes, routes or paths for cyclingb

Cycle lanes/routes



k) There are many road junctionsb

Many road junctions

Street connectivity


l) There are many different routes for walking and cycling so I don’t have to go the same way every timeb

Variety of walk/cycle routes

Street connectivity


m) The area is pleasant for walking or cyclingb

Pleasant to walk/cycle



  1. aAssessed using a five point Likert scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree; bItems were reverse coded for use in analyses; cItems were coded such that a high score = a highly supportive environment; dALPHA = European environmental questionnaire [20].