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Table 5 Environmental factors and likelihood of participating in any walking for transport or recreation

From: Correlates of walking and cycling for transport and recreation: factor structure, reliability and behavioural associations of the perceptions of the environment in the neighbourhood scale (PENS)

    WALKING FOR TRANSPORT WALKING FOR RECREATION
n = 2937a    MODEL 1b MODEL 2c MODEL 1b MODEL 2c
    OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value
Traffic safety          
(3 items) Low   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  Medium   1.19 (0.97-1.47) 0.091 1.07 (0.86-1.32) 0.561 1.05 (0.86-1.27) 0.647 0.97 (0.79-1.19) 0.765
  High   1.16 (0.93-1.45) 0.185 0.98 (0.77-1.26) 0.902 1.02 (0.83-1.25) 0.883 0.82 (0.65-1.03) 0.089
Supportive infrastructure         
(4 items) Low   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  Medium   1.52 (1.20-1.91) 0.001# 1.35 (1.05-1.73) 0.018* 0.99 (0.79-1.23) 0.913 1.0 (0.788-1.26) 0.972
  High   1.65 (1.30-2.10) 0.000# 1.44 (1.08-1.90) 0.012* 1.41 (1.12-1.77) 0.004# 1.47 (1.13-1.92) 0.005#
Local amenities          
(3 items) Low   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  Medium   1.85 (1.24-2.75) 0.003# 1.71 (1.14-2.58) 0.010# 0.94 (0.64-1.38) 0.741 0.94 (0.63-1.38) 0.736
  High   2.46 (1.68-3.58) 0.000# 2.14 (1.44-3.18) 0.000# 1.16 (0.81-1.67) 0.417 1.06 (0.73-1.56) 0.754
Social order          
(2 items) Low   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  Medium   0.81 (0.61-1.08) 0.146 0.77 (0.58-1.02) 0.072 1.15 (0.90-1.47) 0.254 1.12 (0.88-1.43) 0.366
  High   0.86 (0.65-1.15) 0.321 0.77 (0.57-1.03) 0.081 1.12 (0.87-1.43) 0.391 1.06 (0.82-1.37) 0.675
Street connectivity          
(1 item) Low   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  Medium   1.05 (0.75-1.46) 0.791 0.95 (0.67-1.330 0.750 0.94 (0.68-1.30) 0.698 0.89 (0.64-1.23) 0.480
  High   1.18 (0.87-1.61) 0.277 1.05 (0.76-1.43) 0.782 1.03 (0.77-1.39) 0.836 0.96 (0.71-1.30) 0.799
General environment quality         
(12 items) Low   1.0   - - 1.0   - -
  Medium   1.91 (1.24-2.94) 0.003# - - 0.85 (0.56-1.30) 0.449 - -
  High   2.32 (1.49-3.60) 0.000# - - 1.08 (0.71-1.66) 0.716 - -
  1. aiConnect core baseline sample; badjusted for sex, age, ethnic group, education, housing tenure, household cars, household bicycles, location (urban or rural) and case study site; cadjusted for b and the environmental factors which are not the independent variable in the analysis; *p < 0.05 #p < 0.01; OR = odds ratio; CI = 95% confidence interval.