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Table 2 A priori hypotheses of effects for the environmental variables examined

From: The environmental correlates of overall and neighborhood based recreational walking (a cross-sectional analysis of the RECORD Study)

Variable Expected direction Hypothesis
Neighborhood sociodemographic environment  
  Neighborhood median income Positive Nicer, cleaner, and safer environments in affluent neighborhoods promote recreational walking
  Neighborhood education Positive A high average education in the neighborhood may stimulate values that are favorable to a healthy and physically active lifestyle
  Neighborhood population density Positive A high population density was hypothesized to encourage walking according to the walkability hypothesis (e.g., easiness of walking to visit members of one’s social network)
Neighborhood physical environment   
  Proportion of the neighborhood covered with buildings Positive A high density of buildings promotes walking through shorter distances to destinations
  Surface of green spaces Positive Green spaces provide a pleasant context for recreational walking
  Presence of a lake or waterway Positive Lakes/waterways are an enjoyable environmental feature when walking
  Density of street intersections Positive Denser street networks and related shorter distances are more walkable
  Link node ratio Positive More connected street networks represent more walkable neighborhoods
  Highway nearby the dwelling Negative Due to noise and smell, a highway is unpleasant for recreational walking
  Road traffic-related pollution (nitrogen dioxide) Negative Road traffic is a source of noise and unpleasant smells and is potentially dangerous.
  Air traffic exposure area Negative Air traffic noise is a source of annoyance when walking
  Waste treatment facilities Negative Waste treatment facilities may be associated with unpleasant smells as a source of annoyance
  Presence and quality of green and open spaces Positive Green and open spaces of quality provide a pleasant context for recreational walking
  Deterioration of the physical environment Negative A deteriorated physical environment may discourage recreational walking
Neighborhood service environment   
  Density of destinations Positive A high density of services promotes walking, even when people have no definite purchase intentions as in recreational walking
  Presence of monuments Positive Monuments are enjoyable environmental features that foster recreational walking
  Number of transportation lines Positive A high number of transportation lines facilitates access to enjoyable places for walking. A high number of transportation lines may also be a marker of an attractive neighborhood
  Proportion of incoming and outgoing traffic by public transportation rather than car Positive Places with a higher share of trips by public transport represent more walkable neighborhoods
  Presence of a shopping center Positive Shopping centers are a common destination for recreational walking
Neighborhood social interactions   
  School violence nearby the dwelling Negative Fear of violence and crime discourages from walking
  Neighborhood social cohesion Positive Socially cohesive neighborhoods provide a pleasant context for walking
  Neighborhood shared feeling of insecurity Negative Fear of violence and crime discourages from walking
  Neighborhood stressful social interactions Negative Fear of incivilities discourages from walking
  Neighborhood mistrust and hostility Negative Mistrust and hostility among neighbors discourage from walking
Neighborhood symbolic environment   
  Stigmatized neighborhood identity Negative Neighborhoods with a stigmatized identity are not attractive for walking