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Table 5 Unstandardized regression coefficients and P-values for built environment, perceived safety, and their interactions in the NQLS sample

From: Is the relationship between the built environment and physical activity moderated by perceptions of crime and safety?

Outcome variable
  Total MVPAafrom accelerometers Natural log of walking for transportationa Natural log of walking for leisurea
  n = 1995 n = 2065 n = 2068
  ICC = .09d ICC = .04d ICC = .00d
   B (95% CI) P-value   B (95% CI) P-value   B (95% CI) P-value
Walkability index M1 9.48 (5.31, 13.65) .000* M10 0.18 (0.12–0.25) .000*    
 Traffic safety   17.15 (.04, 24.27) .049*   0.24 (0.01–0.48) .042*    
 Interaction   −2.63 (−8.22, 2.96) .357   −0.04 (−0.12–0.03) .271    
Walkability index M2 7.81 (3.69, 11.94) .000* M11 0.18 (0.12–0.24) .000*    
 Pedestrian safety   40.26 (18.02, 62.51) .000*   0.46 (0.16–0.76) .002*    
 Interaction   7.48 (.86, 14.09) .027*   −0.01 (−0.1–0.07) .796    
Walkability index M3 9.99 (5.99, 13.99) .000* M12 0.18 (0.12–0.24) .000*    
 Crime safety   13.41 (−5.43,32.25) .163   0.01 (−0.25–0.28) .925    
 Interaction   −6.51 (−12.34, −0.69) .028*   −.005 (−0.13–0.03) .199    
Parks M4 −15.46 (−52.55, 21.63) .412    M13 −0.03 (−0.48–0.43) .909
 Traffic safety   16.44 (−6.45, 39.33) .159     0.25 (0.06–0.57) .112
 Interaction   11.11 (−34.42, 56.64) .632     0.16 (-0.46–0.78) .618
Parks M5 −9.70 (−46.98, 27.57) .609    M14 −0.04 (−0.50–0.43) .875
 Pedestrian safety   17.95 (−11.96, 47.86) .239     0.39 (−0.02–0.80) .061
 Interaction   76.32 (16.93, 135.71) .012*     0.17 (−0.64–0.98) .681
Parks M6 −1.26 (−41.86, 39.33) .951    M15 0.22 (−0.30–0.75) .403
 Crime safety   23.02 (−9.72, 55.76) .168     0.29 (−0.16–0.74) .205
 Interaction   −47.73 (−112.28, 16.82) .147     −0.83 (−1.71–0.06) .070
Rec facilities M7 31.39 (6.10, 56.68) .015*    M16 0.39 (0.08–0.70) .013*
 Traffic safety   19.38 (1.52, 37.24) .034     0.22 (−0.01–.046) .066
 Interaction   6.08 (−29.19, 41.35) .735     0.58 (0.10–1.05) .018*
Rec facilities M8 28.10 (2.79, 53.41) .030*    M17 0.37 (0.04–0.69) .026*
 Pedestrian safety   36.90 (14.07, 59.72) .002*     0.39 (0.08–0.71) .013*
 Interaction   34.17 (−11.13, 79.47) .139     0.07 (−0.55–0.69) .821
Rec facilities M9 35.66 (9.42, 61.89) .008*    M18 0.40 (0.06–0.73) .021*
 Crime safety   13.20 (−7.74, 34.19) .217     −0.05 (−0.33–0.23) .740
 Interaction   −32.32 (−72.61, 7.98) .116     0.22 (−0.32–0.71) .421
  1. MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity.
  2. B = unstandardized regression coefficient.
  3. CI = confidence interval.
  4. ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient assessing proportion of variance between block groups.
  5. M = model number.
  6. aControlling for age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, months at address, number of people in the household and number of vehicles per adult.
  7. dICCs are for the empty model containing no independent variables.
  8. *Significant at p < 0.05.