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Table 3 Comparison of the environment along the actual and shortest possible routes (n = 113)

From: Route choices of transport bicyclists: a comparison of actually used and shortest routes

Variable Mean actual route (SD) Mean shortest route (SD) Difference (actual − shortest) Significance
Traffic     
Bicycle pathwaysa 30.0 (±28,3) 19.3 (±20,8) 10.7 <0.001
Bicycle lanesa 31.3 (±26.7) 30.6 (±22.7) 0.5 0.723
Side roads without bicycle lanesa 21.6 (±14,5) 24.6 (±14,6) −3.0 0.001
Main roads without bicycle lanesa 9.8 (±17.7) 21.2 (±28.1) −10.4 <0.001
Traffic lightsb 1.5 (±1,1) 1.7 (±1,0) −0.2 0.001
Crossingsb 1.3 (±0.9) 1.6 (±1.0) −0.3 <0.001
Greenery/aesthetics     
Green and aquatic areasc 19.2 (±10.9) 14.5 (±7.7) 4.7 <0.001
-Urban treesb 44.9 (±30.7) 42.2 (±27.3) 2.7 0.089
-Sports and recreation areasc 7.7 (±8.7) 4.3 (±5.2) 3.4 <0.001
-Playing fieldsc 0.9 (±1.2) 0.8 (±1.5) 0.1 0.042
-Forestsc 0.6 (±1.8) 0.5 (±1.5) 0.1 0.341
-Aquatic areasc 2.9 (±4.6) 1.3 (±2.1) 1.6 <0.001
Topography     
Steepnessd 0.2 (±0.6) 0.4 (±0.9) 0.2 0.031
Other land use     
Residential areasc 28.6 (±20.1) 28.1 (±19.4) 0.5 0.778
Industrial and commercial areasc 3.2 (±4.7) 3.2 (±4.7) 0.0 0.870
Residential densitye 64.2 (±30.2) 67.6 (±29.2) −3.4 0.034
Land-use mixf 0.82 (±0.1) 0.79 (±0.1) 0.02 <0.001
Shops and servicesb 4.4 (±4.5) 5.4 (±5.0) −1.0 <0.001
  1. a = % of the trip length, b = points per 1 km trip length, c = % of the environment along the trip (15 m buffer), d = sum of the gradient values per 1 km trip (0: flat – 8: very steep), e = residences per ha in the route neighbourhood, f = value from the LUM formula (Frank et al., [18]), SD = standard deviation.
  2. * = paired t-tests for normally distributed data and Wilcoxon tests for data with a skewed distribution.