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Table 8 Relationship between sex, extracurricular school-based sports participation, community sports participation and amotivation towards sports

From: Extracurricular school-based sports as a motivating vehicle for sports participation in youth: a cross-sectional study

  Amotivation towards sports (Model 4)  
Parameter Null model 4 Model 4a Model 4b Model 4c
Fixed part β (S.E.) β (S.E.) β (S.E.) β (S.E.)
Intercept 1.38 (0.03) 1.40 (0.03) 1.49 (0.10) 1.47 (0.06)
Age   0.03 (0.03) 0.03 (0.03) 0.03 (0.03)
SES (high)a   −0.05 (0.04) −0.05 (0.04) −0.05 (0.04)
Autonomous motivation   −0.50 (0.02)*** −0.50 (0.03)*** −0.50 (0.03)***
Controlled motivation   0.21 (0.03)*** 0.20 (0.03)*** 0.20 (0.03)***
Pupil sex (girl)b    −0.08 (0.12) −0.10 (0.04)**
Extracurricular school-based sports participation (yes)c    0.00 (0.11) −0.02 (0.04)
Community sports participation (yes)d    −0.10 (0.13) −0.01 (0.05)
Girl x extracurricular school-based sports    −0.16 (0.15)  
Girl x community sports    0.06 (0.15)  
Extracurricular school-based sports x community sports    0.04 (0.14)  
Girl x extracurricular school-based sports x community sports    0.11 (0.18)  
Random part σ2 (S.E.) σ2 (S.E.) σ2 (S.E.) σ2 (S.E.)
School-level variance 0.01 (0.01) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00)
Class-level variance 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00)
Pupil-level variance 0.50 (0.02)*** 0.34 (0.02)*** 0.33 (0.02)*** 0.34 (0.02)***
Deviance test model 2 265.68 1 848.46*** 1 837.07 1 841.31
Χ2 (df)   417.22 (4) 11.39 (11) 7.15 (7)
  1. Note. Values in parentheses are standard errors.
  2. **p < .01, ***p < .001.
  3. Reference category = 0; a0 = low and medium SES, 1 = high SES; b0 = boy, 1 = girl; c0 = no participation in extracurricular school-based sports in the current school year, 1 = participation in extracurricular school-based sports in the current school year; d0 = no participation in community sports in the current school year, 1 = participation in community sports in the current school year.
  4. Model 4b and 4c were both compared to model 4a to calculate χ2.