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Table 2 Demographic and health characteristic of participants; energy and food contents of the individual daily food baskets (mean ± standard deviation or %)

From: Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

  Low-income group Medium-income group p-valuev
N = 95 N = 33
Demographic characteristics    
Age, y 35.3 ± 7.0 34.8 ± 6.9 0.3509
Educationi, y 4.6 ± 2.1 6.5 ± 2.2 0.0001
Employed, % 17 70 <.0001
Income, € per month and per consumption unit 572.5 ± 140.4 1500.7 ± 444.5 <.0001
Household size, number of persons 3.8 ± 1.6 2.8 ± 1.4 0.0011
Health characteristics    
Body Mass Indexi i, kg/m2 25.3 ± 5.8 23.9 ± 4.3 0.1921
Overweight, % 44 33 0.2744
At least one chronic health disorderi i i, % 20 12 0.3098
Never sport, % 58 24 0.0149
Total energy content, kcal    
Learning (24 h recall) 1487.48 ± 584.6 1458.28 ± 679.7 0.4957
Baseline 1555.69 ± 949.7 1456.16 ± 643.5 0.4546
Fruit and vegetable condition 1471.33 ± 575.4 1409.98 ± 698.2 0.2926
Nutrient profile condition 1400.19 ± 570.5 1364.06 ± 550.5 0.3085
Food content at baselineiv, in grams    
Fruit and vegetables (beverages included) 410.3 ± 380.8 514.7 ± 362.6 0.0776
  Beverages alone 56.3 ± 133.9 38.2 ± 78.3 0.3381
Other healthy products (beverages included) 518.7 ± 290.1 703.6 ± 325.2 0.0008
  Beverages alone 342.1 ± 249 462.5 ± 318.9 0.0127
Neutral products (beverages included) 727.5 ± 454.1 903.0 ± 664.8 0.1285
  Beverages alone 495.5 ± 389.6 630.7 ± 665 0.3729
Unhealthy products (beverages included) 322.9 ± 395.8 195.9 ± 235.5 0.0631
  Beverages alone 66.3 ± 157.2 39.3 ± 123 0.3242
Expendituresiv, €    
Fruit and vegetables 1.16 ± 0.91 1.57 ± 1.20 0.0373
Other healthy products 1.23 ± 1.10 1.70 ± 1.22 0.0065
Neutral products 1.27 ± 2.13 1.42 ± 1.24 0.1539
Unhealthy products 1.56 ± 2.45 0.94 ± 1.26 0.0930
  1. ithe number of additional years of compulsory schooling in France (i.e. beyond 16 years).
  2. i icalculated from height and weight stated by participants.
  3. i i ias stated by participants.
  4. ivexcept for fruit and vegetables, foods are classified as other healthy, neutral and unhealthy products according a nutrient profiling described in the Method section. The values reported there are crude values i.e. not energy-adjusted.
  5. vWilcoxon rank sum test or Pearson χ2 test against null hypothesis of no differences between income groups.