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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics, attitude and walking behavior by high walkable (HW), medium walkable (MW), and low walkable (LW) neighborhood types

From: The associations between objectively-determined and self-reported urban form characteristics and neighborhood-based walking in adults

  Total Sample HW MW LW
(n = 1875) (n = 134) (n = 676) (n = 1065)
Socio-demographic characteristics     
Gender (% women) 62.2 56.7 60.9 63.7
Age in years (%)     
  18 to 39a 25.9 28.4 20.6 28.9
  40 to 59 52.8 50.0 44.1 44.7
  ≥60a,b 29.3 21.6 35.4 26.4
Highest education completed (%)     
  Less than high schoola 4.9 3.7 7.4 3.4
  High school 24.9 25.4 25.4 24.5
  College/technical school 25.5 20.9 25.1 26.3
  University - Undergraduatea,b 29.8 36.6 25.3 31.7
  University - Postgraduate 15.0 13.4 16.7 14.1
Home owner (%)a,b,c 86.3 57.5 83.4 91.8
Dependents (% ≥1 dependents)a,b,c 34.1 18.7 28.8 39.4
Years lived in neighborhood (mean ± SD)a,b 12.87 ± 12.02 9.20 ± 9.18 17.08 ± 14.22 10.67 ± 9.91
Attitude towards walking (1.0-5.0 scale; mean ± SD) 4.33 ± 0.55 4.36 ± 0.58 4.30 ± 0.54 4.35 ± 0.54
Neighborhood-based walking     
No walking for transportation (% 0 times in last 7 days)a,b,c 59.8 33.6 55.6 65.7
Minutes of walking for transportation (mean ± SD)b,c 106.6 ± 117.4 177.8 ± 166.2 102.5 ± 104.5 92.6 ± 106.8
No walking for recreation (% 0 times in last 7 days) 43.2 56.3 43.8 42.4
Minutes of walking for recreation (mean ± SD) 166.7 ± 159.7 175.3 ± 206.4 164.0 ± 158.5 167.3 ± 154.4
  1. a = LW significantly differs from MW (p < .05) based on One Way ANOVA (continuous variables) or Pearson’s chi-square (categorical variables) with Bonferroni–adjusted pairwise comparison.
  2. b = MW significantly differs from HW (p < .05) based on One Way ANOVA (continuous variables) or Pearson’s chi-square (categorical variables) with Bonferroni–adjusted pairwise comparison.
  3. c = LW significantly differs from HW (p < .05) based on One Way ANOVA (continuous variables) or Pearson’s chi-square (categorical variables) with Bonferroni–adjusted pairwise comparison.