Skip to main content

Table 2 The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ)–9 factors and 40 items

From: The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds

Factor Item name Content
Distrust in appetite 1 DA1 If I did not guide or regulate my child’s eating, (s)he would eat much less than (s)he should.a, 1
2 DA2 How often are you firm about how much your child should eat?b, 2
3 DA3* Who decides how much food your child eats – you or your child?c
4 DA4* When your child refuses food they usually eat, do you accept that your child may not be hungry and take the food away?b, 3
Reward for behaviour 5 RB1 I offer sweet foods (lollies, ice-cream, cake, pastries) to my child as a reward for good behaviour.a, 1
6 RB2 I offer my child his/her favourite foods in exchange for good behaviour.a, 1
7 RB3 In order to get my child to behave him/herself I promise him/her something to eat.b, 4
8 RB4 I reward my child with something to eat when (s)he is well behaved.b, 4
9 RB5 I give my child something to eat to make him/her feel better when (s)he is feeling upset.b, 4
10 RB6 I give my child something to eat to make him/her feel better when (s)he has been hurt.b, 4
Reward for eating 11 RE1 …do you promise the child something other than food if (s)he eats (for example, “If you eat your beans, we can go to the park”)?b, 5
12 RE2 When your child refuses food they usually eat, do you encourage to eat by offering a reward other than food?b, 3
13 RE3 …do you encourage the child to eat something by using food as a reward (for example, “If you finish your vegetables, you will get some fruit)?b, 5
14 RE4 When your child refuses food they usually eat, do you encourage to eat by offering a food reward (e.g., dessert)?b, 3
15 RE5 I use desserts as a bribe to get my child to eat his/her main course.b, 4
16 RE6 …do you warn the child that you will take a food away if the child doesn’t eat (for example, “If you don’t finish your vegetables, you won’t get fruit”)?b, 5
Persuasive feeding 17 PF1 If my child says “I’m not hungry” I try to get him/her to eat anyway.a, 1
18 PF2 When your child refuses food they usually eat, do you insist your child eats it?b, 3
19 PF3 I praise my child if (s)he eats what I give him/her.b, 4
20 PF4 …do you reason with the child to get him/her to eat (for example, “Milk is good for your health because it will make you strong”)?b, 5
21 PF5 …do you tell the child to eat something on the plate (for example, “Eat your beans”)?b, 5
22 PF6 …do you say something to show your disapproval of the child for not eating?b, 5
Covert restriction 23 CR1 How often do you avoid going with your child to cafes or restaurants which sell unhealthy foods?b, 2
24 CR2 How often do you avoid buying lollies and snacks e.g., potato chips and bringing them into the house?b, 2
25 CR3 How often do you not buy foods that you would like because you do not want your children to have them?b, 2
26 CR4 How often do you avoid buying biscuits and cakes and bringing them into the house?b, 2
Overt restriction 27 OR1 I have to be sure that my child does not eat too many sweet foods (lollies, ice-cream, cake or pastries).a, 1
28 OR2 I have to be sure that my child does not eat too much of his/her favourite foods.a, 1
29 OR3 I intentionally keep some foods out of my child’s reach.a, 1
30 OR4 If I did not guide or regulate my child’s eating, (s)he would eat too many junk foods.a, 1
Structured meal setting 31 SMS1* I allow my child to wander around during a meal.b, 4
32 SMS2 I insist my child eats meals at the table.b, 4
33 SMS3 How often are you firm about where your child should eat?b, 2
34 SMS4 My child sits down when having meals.b, 3
Structured meal timing 35 SMT1* I let my child decide when (s)he would like to have her meal.b, 4
36 SMT2 I decide when it is time for my child to have a snack.b, 4
37 SMT3 I decide the times when my child eats his/her meals.b, 4
Family meal setting 38 FMS1 My child eats main meals with the rest of the family.b, 3
39 FMS2 My child eats the same meals as the rest of the family.b, 3
40 FMS3* I cook separate meals for my child.b, 3
  1. *Item is reverse coded.
  2. aResponse options: (1) Disagree, (2) Slightly disagree, (3) Neutral, (4) Slightly agree, (5) Agree.
  3. bResponse options: (1) Never, (2) Rarely, (3) Sometimes, (4) Often, (5) Always.
  4. cResponse options: (1) You only, (2) Mostly you, (3) You and your child equally, (4) Mostly your child, (5) Your child only.
  5. 1From Child Feeding Questionnaire by Birch et al. [41].
  6. 2From Ogden et al.’s [43] measure of overt and covert control.
  7. 3From Chan et al.’s [44] measure of feeding environment management and responses to food refusal.
  8. 4From Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire by Wardle et al. [2].
  9. 5From Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire by Hughes et al. [42].Note: Key words presented in bold are listed on the model in Figure 2, rather than the full items.
  10. The original response options for items 1, 2, 3 and 7 were: (1) A lot of the time, (2) Very often, (3) Often, (4) Sometimes, (5) Hardly ever; for items 22, 30, 32 and 36: (1) Never, (2) Not often, (3) Sometimes, (4) Often, (5) Most of the time; and for items 29, 31, 34, 38, 39 and 40: (1) Never, (2) Rarely, (3) Sometimes, (4) Most of the time, (5) Always.