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Table 3 Coding scheme used to categorize maternal feeding styles with regard to authority, confidence, and investment

From: Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

Authority
High authority Mother sets limits and structure for food and mealtime. She guides her child’s food choices and eating decisions pertaining to what, when, where, or how much is consumed. The mother is clearly in control and purposefully sets the agenda for feeding her child.
Low authority Mother sets few or no expectations or rules surrounding feeding her child. She allows the child to drive decisions about what, when, where, or how much is consumed. Her manner may range from indulgent/loving to harsh/neglectful, but the key point is that the child sets the agenda for feeding.
Confidence
Confident Mother does not question her decisions about how she chooses to feed her child, and is confident that her child is eating properly. She may have a few doubts, but they do not overwhelm her strong feelings that she is doing the right thing and correctly addressing any child feeding challenges.
Not Confident Mother has doubts and is unsure about how she feed her child. She may be confident in some aspects of feeding, but overall questions whether her child is being fed properly. She may express worry, uncertainty, or concern about how she is handling difficult child feeding situations.
Investment
Deeply There is a sense that love and concern is expressed through the mother’s feeding practices. She speaks passionately and has invested significant cognitive energy in feeding as demonstrated by expression of complex thoughts about feeding her child.
Mildly Mother has given some thought to feeding her child, but she does not speak passionately and her interview is not characterized by significant affect. She may have a few complex thoughts about feeding, but lacks fervor and enthusiasm when describing her feeding practices.
Removed Mother is relatively indifferent to child’s eating habits. She is unconcerned and shares limited thoughts related to feeding. She may present as neglectful, or may simply appear unconcerned about child feeding.