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Table 4 Sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices for full sample and by level of maternal depressive symptoms 1

From: Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

  Total Lower level maternal depressive symptoms2 Elevated maternal depressive symptoms3 P-value4
n = 295 n = 204 n = 91
Sociodemographic characteristics     
Child age, months 70.83 ± 8.32 70.60 ± 8.09 71.33 ± 8.84 NS
Child sex male 152 (52) 104 (50.98) 48 (53) NS
Number of older siblings 0.92 ± 1.01 0.90 ± 0.99 0.95 ± 1.06 NS
Maternal age, n = 294 30.99 ± 7.03 31.02 ± 6.87 30.93 ± 7.41 NS
Maternal BMI, n = 293 33.08 ± 9.36 32.60 ± 9.07 34.16 ± 9.95 NS
Maternal education ≤ high school 141 (48) 90 (44.12) 51 (56) NS
Mother Hispanic/non-white 95 (32) 66 (32.35) 29 (32) NS
Mother single parent 132 (45) 88 (43.14) 44 (48) NS
Feeding practices     
Questionnaires     
Perceived responsibility 4.45 ± 0.65 4.46 ± 0.66 4.43 ± 0.65 NS
Pressure to eat 2.72 ± 1.07 2.61 ± 1.04 2.97 ± 1.11 <.01
Restriction, n = 294 3.31 ± 0.92 3.24 ± 0.94 3.48 ± 0.86 <.05
Monitoring 4.01 ± 1.03 3.99 ± 1.06 4.05 ± 0.99 NS
Demandingness 2.55 ± 0.55 2.49 ± 0.52 2.67 ± 0.60 <.01
Concern about child weight 1.72 ± 0.91 1.69 ± 0.95 1.80 ± 0.83 NS
Perceived child weight     NS
 Underweight 54 (18) 34 (17) 20 (22)  
 Normal 203 (69) 142 (70) 61 (67)  
 Overweight 38 (13) 28 (14) 10 (11)  
Food Fussiness, n = 291 2.73 ± 0.77 2.70 ± 0.80 2.78 ± 0.67 NS
Interviews, n = 293     
Authority     < .001
 Low 70 (24) 36 (18) 34 (38)  
 High 223 (76) 167 (82) 56 (62)  
Confidence     NS
 Not confident 65 (22) 40 (20) 25 (28)  
 Confident 228 (78) 163 (80) 65 (72)  
Investment     NS
 Removed 61 (21) 36 (18) 25 (28)  
 Mildly 143 (49) 101 (50) 42 (47)  
 Deeply 89 (30) 66 (33) 23 (26)  
Home meal observations, n = 270     
Child always eats at table 221 (82) 158 (85) 63 (75) <.05
TV always audible during meal 76 (28) 44 (24) 32 (38) <.05
Mother always eats with child 161 (60) 121 (65) 40 (48) <.01
Laboratory eating interactions, n = 228     
Encouragements Familiar food 4.46 ± 4.59 4.26 ± 4.30 4.84 ± 5.11 NS
  Unfamiliar food 6.96 ± 7.51 7.17 ± 7.34 6.56 ± 7.87 NS
Discouragements Familiar food 1.96 ± 3.15 2.09 ± 3.39 1.69 ± 2.64 NS
  Unfamiliar food 1.24 ± 2.34 1.15 ± 2.22 1.40 ± 2.57 NS
  1. 1Total sample size n = 295 unless otherwise stated. Values expressed as “number of participants (%)” or “mean ± SD”. Percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding. NS = Non-significant.
  2. 2Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) score < 16.
  3. 3CES-D score ≥ 16.
  4. 4P-values calculated using t-tests for continuous variables, Chi-square tests for categorical variables, and unadjusted Poisson regression for count data.