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Table 2 Linear regression models examining factors related to child outside play at age five (min/day)

From: A longitudinal study of children’s outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  beta (95% CI) beta (95% CI) beta (95% CI) beta (95% CI)
n 1940 1390 1968 1337
Socio-demographics     
Child age at baseline 14.42 (6.71 to 22.14)    13.61 (5.13 to 22.08)
Child gender; boy 6.52 (1.12 to 11.91)    4.07 (−1.79 to 9.93)
Child ethnic background; Dutch 1.79 (−11.99 to 15.57)    −4.45 (−20.26 to 11.36)
Child BMI 2.11 (0.25 to 3.96)    2.00 (−0.22 to 4.21)
Parental age at baseline −0.62 (−1.28 to 0.03)    −0.33 (−1.08 to 0.42)
Parental ethnic background; Dutch 22.94 (4.74 to 41.14)    11.34 (−11.12 to 33.80)
Parental BMI 0.26 (−0.08 to 0.60)    1.14 (0.26 to 2.02)
Parental education level     
Low reference    reference
Mid-low 15.61 (−7.34 to 38.55)    15.64 (−21.27 to 52.56)
Mid-high 7.82 (−14.40 to 30.04)    10.35 (−25.97 to 46.67)
High −3.90 (−26.26 to 18.46)    −2.04 (−38.45 to 34.37)
Family environment 1     
Parental attitude (agree)   −4.32 (−8.01 to −0.63)   −3.78 (−7.46 to −0.10)
Family attitude (agree)   −2.30 (−6.15 to 1.55)   −2.41 (−6.27 to 1.46)
Perceived difficulty (agree)   −18.06 (−28.12 to −8.00)   −16.33 (−26.41 to −6.26)
Habit strength (agree)   33.89 (25.52 to 42.75)   33.41 (25.05 to 41.77)
Intention to improve (agree)   −10.81 (−17.64 to −3.98)   −12.83 (−19.73 to −5.92)
Presence of rules   23.98 (17.60 to 30.36)   19.87 (13.44 to 26.30)
Presence of monitoring   4.90 (−2.90 to 12.70)   4.87 (−2.97 to 12.71)
Presence of active encouragement   −5.26 (−12.71 to 2.19)   −3.00 (−10.48 to 4.48)
Child autonomy (agree)   12.16 (3.83 to 20.49)   11.66 (3.30 to 20.02)
Modelling parent (#days physically active)   0.88 (−0.63 to 2.39)   0.58 (−0.95 to 2.10)
Modelling partner (#days physically active)   0.39 (−0.99 to 1.78)   0.84 (−0.58 to 2.25)
Modelling siblings (#days physically active)   5.01 (3.02 to 6.99)   4.82 (2.81 to 6.83)
Perceived physical environment 1     
Safety perception during daytime (agree)    −0.81 (−9.67 to 8.05) 0.20 (−9.54 to 9.94)
Safety perception during evenings (agree)    11.82 (4.89 to 18.74) 5.21 (−2.15 to 12.58)
Friendliness for children (agree)    4.43 (−6.52 to 15.37) −2.63 (−14.53 to 9.27)
Attractiveness for children (agree)    0.84 (−9.03 to 10.72) −2.79 (−13.43 to 7.85)
Safety of outside play without supervision (agree)    1.91 (−4.99 to 8.81) −0.40 (−7.89 to 7.09)
R-square2 0.13 0.27 0.10 0.31
  1. 1For details on the measures used see Additional file 1: Table S1.
  2. 2R square statistic represents the level of variance explained by the general linear model.
  3. Note: numbers printed bold represent a statistically significant (p < .05) association between the predictor and child outside play at five years old.