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Table 3 Linear regression models examining factors related to child outside play at age seven (min/day)

From: A longitudinal study of children’s outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  beta (95%CI) beta (95%CI) beta (95%CI) beta (95%CI)
n 1994 1390 1968 1363
Socio-demographics     
Child age at baseline 7.98 (0.88 to 15.09)    4.65 (−3.50 to 12.79)
Child gender; boy 8.51 (2.68 to 14.34)    6.36 (−0.20 to 12.93)
Child BMI 1.21 (−0.79 to 3.21)    1.72 (−0.72 to 4.16)
Parental age at baseline −0.85 (−1.55 to −0.15)    −0.41 (−1.23 to 0.41)
Parental education level     
Low reference    reference
Mid-low 17.59 (−2.34 to 37.52)    8.87 (−19.62 to 37.35)
Mid-high −1.73 (−20.66 to 17.20)    −8.25 (−35.67 to 19.17)
High −19.50 (−38.58 to −0.41)    −26.63 (−54.10 to 0.84)
Family environment 1     
Parental attitude (agree)   −3.80 (−7.97 to 0.37)   −3.97 (−8.08 to 0.15)
Family attitude (agree)   −3.22 (−7.57 to 1.13)   −2.87 (−7.19 to 1.45)
Perceived difficulty (agree)   −24.44 (−35.81 to −13.06)   −22.11 (−33.41 to −10.81)
Habit strength (agree)   25.19 (15.72 to 34.67)   23.99 (14.61 to 33.36)
Intention to improve (agree)   −1.12 (−8.84 to 6.60)   −2.88 (−10.57 to 4.81)
Presence of rules   21.49 (14.28 to 28.69)   16.46 (9.26 to 23.67)
Presence of monitoring   2.97 (−5.83 to 11.78)   5.30 (−3.42 to 14.02)
Presence of active encouragement   −10.82 (−19.25 to −2.39)   −8.91 (−17.33 to −0.48)
Child autonomy (agree)   5.48 (−3.95 to 14.90)   4.80 (−4.59 to 14.19)
Modelling parent (#days physically active)   0.50 (−1.21 to 2.20)   0.45 (−1.24 to 2.15)
Modelling partner (#days physically active)   1.49 (−0.07 to 3.05)   1.85 (0.27 to 3.42)
Modelling siblings (#days physically active)   1.06 (−1.18 to 3.30)   1.27 (−0.99 to 3.52)
Perceived physical environment 1     
Safety perception during daytime (agree)    −3.57 (−13.24 to 6.10) 2.88 (−8.03 to 13.79)
Safety perception during evenings (agree)    8.68 (1.18 to 16.19) 3.54 (−4.68 to 11.76)
Friendliness for children (agree)    4.63 (−7.31 to 16.57) −5.57 (−18.66 to 7.72)
Attractiveness for children (agree)    4.88 (−5.89 to 15.64) 3.21 (−8.62 to 15.05)
Safety of outside play without supervision (agree)    3.93 (−3.57 to 11.43) 0.12 (−8.22 to 8.47)
R-square2 0.10 0.15 0.06 0.20
  1. 1For details on the measures used see Additional file 1: Table S1.
  2. 2R square statistic represents the level of variance explained by the general linear model.
  3. Note: numbers printed bold represent a statistically significant (p < .05) association between the predictor and child outside play at five years old.