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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies (n = 18)

From: Determinants of exercise adherence and maintenance among cancer survivors: a systematic review

First author, year Cancer diagnosis Study population (number of patients (n); mean age ± SD; %female) Study design Exercise intervention Outcome measures adherence or maintenance Adherence/maintenance (% or mean ± SD)
Pretreatment       
Peddle, 2009 [39] Lung cancer n = 19; 64 ± 10y; 68% female Single-group trial AET 5 times a week for the duration of surgical wait time (range 4–13 weeks) Percentage of the prescribed number of sessions attended 73 ± 35%
During treatment      
Courneya, 2008 [40] Breast cancer n = 160; 49y; 100% female Three-armed RCT 1) Supervised AET or 2) RET, 3 times a week for the duration of CT (ranging from 12 to 24 weeks) Percentage of the expected number of sessions attended Group 1: 72.0 ± 30.1%; Group 2: 68.2 ± 28.4%
Klepin, 2011 [41] Acute myelogenous leukemia n = 24; 65.1 ± 7.8y; 62.5% female Single-group trial Supervised AET and strength training 3 times a week for 4 weeks Number of exercise sessions completed 2.7 ± 2.4
Shang, 2012 [42] Mixed (34% breast cancer) N = 68; 59.8 ± 10.8y; 39.7% female Two-armed RCT Home-based walking intervention 5 times a week for the duration of RT/CT (ranging from 5 to 35 weeks) Percentage of patients meeting the personalized exercise prescription > 2/3 of the study period 67.7%
Swenson, 2010 [43] Breast cancer n = 29; 46.9y (range: 40–54); 100% female Two-armed RCT Tools and advise to perform minimal 10,000 steps per day (PA assessed over 12 months) Percentage of patients meeting the exercise prescription of 10,000 steps per day 74%
After treatment      
Courneya, 2004 [44] Colorectal cancer n = 62; 59.9 ± 10.7y; 45.2% female Two-armed RCT Home-based AET 3–5 times a week for 16 weeks Average min/week of moderate-strenuous AET performed 91.5 ± 148.4 min/week
Courneya, 2004 [45] Prostate cancer n = 82; 68.2 ± 7.9y; 0% female Two-armed RCT RET at fitness center 3 times a week for 12 weeks Number of observed exercise session attended 28.2 ± 7.1
Latka, 2009 [46] Breast cancer n = 37; 56.5 ± 9.5y; 100% female Two-armed RCT Supervised AET 3 times a week and home-based AET 2 times a week for 6 months Average min/week of moderate-intensity AET performed (prescribed 150 min.) 122.8 ± 52.4 min/week
McGuire, 2011 [47] Breast cancer n = 120; 58.7y, 100% female Two-armed RCT Home-based strength training for 8 months and strength training in a fitness center for the following 16 months, both 2 times a week Percentage of the prescribed number of sessions performed 62%
Pinto, 2009 [48] Breast cancer n = 43; 53.4 ± 9.1; 100% female Two-armed RCT Home-based walking intervention 2–5 days a week for 12 weeks Percentage of patients meeting the exercise prescription 54-91%
During and after treatment      
Courneya, 2002 [49] Mixed (41% breast cancer) n = 51; 52.5 ± 10.2y; 84.4% female Two-armed RCT Home-based AET 3–5 times per week for 10 weeks Average min/week of moderate-strenuous AET performed 141.1 ± 129.2 min/week
Courneya, 2010 [50] Lymphoma n = 60; 52.8y (range: 18–77); 38.3% female Two-armed RCT Supervised AET 3 times a week for 12 weeks Percentage of the expected number of sessions attended 78 ± 30%
Maintenance       
Courneya, 2004 [51] Mixed (40% breast cancer) n = 30; 54.9 ± 8.0y; 77% female Two-armed RCT Home-based AET 3–5 times per week for 10 weeks Average min/week of moderate-strenuous exercise 146.3 ± 143.5 min/week
Courneya, 2009 [52] Breast cancer n = 201; 49y; 100% female Three-armed RCT 1) Supervised AET; 2) RET 3 times a week for the duration of CT (ranging from 12 to 24 weeks) or 3) a delayed 1 month supervised program for usual care patients Meeting AET and/or RET guidelines Neither: 42.3%; either: 36.8%; both: 20.9%
Courneya, 2011 [53] Lymphoma n = 110; 44 pt <55y and 66 pt ≥55y; 43.6% female Two-armed RCT 1) Supervised AET 3 times a week for 12 weeks or 2) a delayed 1 month supervised program for usual care Percentage of patients meeting ACSM guideline 55.5%
Loprinzi, 2012 [54] Breast cancer n = 69; 70.6 ± 1.2y; 100% female Three-armed RCT 1) Supervised AET; 2) supervised RET or 3) supervised stretching and relaxation exercise 3 times a week for 12 months Activity status based on TTM stages Sufficiently active: 57%; Insufficiently active: 43%
Rogers, 2011 [55] Breast cancer n = 36; 53 ± 9y; 100% female Two-armed RCT 1) 12 individual supervised exercise sessions, 6 discussion group sessions and 3 individual face-to-face counseling sessions over a 3 month period or 2) information on PA after a cancer diagnosis Daily minutes of activity of moderate-strenuous activity Group 1: 174.9 min/day; Group 2: 92 min/day
Vallance, 2010 [56] Breast cancer n = 266; 57y (range 36–90); 100% female Four-armed RCT Exercise recommendation and 1) nothing, 2) exercise for health book, 3) pedometer or 4)exercise for health book and pedometer Percentage of patients meeting ACSM guideline 49.2%
  1. ACSM = American College of Sports Medicine; AET = aerobic exercise training; CT = chemotherapy; PA = physical activity; RET = resistance exercise training; RT = radiotherapy; TTM = Transtheoretical Model.