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Table 3 Determinants of exercise adherence

From: Determinants of exercise adherence and maintenance among cancer survivors: a systematic review

 

Overall

During treatment

After treatment

 

N

N + (ref)

N- (ref)

N0 (ref)

LoE

N

N + (ref)

N- (ref)

N0 (ref)

N

N + (ref)

N- (ref)

N0 (ref)

Demographic & Clinical

             

Age

12

1 [50]

1 [45]

10 [3949]

C

4

  

4 [4043]

5

 

1 [45]

4 [44, 4648]

Being married

10

1 [47]

1 [42]

8 [40, 41, 4446, 4850]

C

3

 

1 [42]

2 [40, 41]

5

1 [47]

 

4 [4446, 48]

Education

9

  

9 [4042, 4446, 4850]

C

3

  

3 [4042]

4

  

4 [4446, 48]

Employment

8

 

1 [44]

7 [40, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 50]

C

3

  

3 [40, 42, 43]

3

 

1 [44]

2 [45, 47]

Gender

6

2 [39, 49]

 

4 [41, 42, 44, 50]

C

2

  

2 [41, 42]

1

  

1 [44]

Income

5

  

5 [40, 44, 45, 49, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

2

  

2 [44, 45]

Smoking

4

 

1 [50]

3 [39, 40, 45]

C

1

  

1 [40]

1

  

1 [45]

Race

2

  

2 [41, 42]

C

2

  

2 [41, 42]

0

   

Disease stage

10

1 [40]

 

9 [4250]

C

3

1 [40]

 

2 [42, 43]

5

  

5 [4448]

Time since diagnosis/treatment

7

  

7 [4450]

C

0

   

5

  

5 [4448]

Type of treatment

5

2 [44, 50]

 

3 [42, 46, 47]

C

1

  

1 [42]

3

1 [44]

 

2 [46, 47]

Tumor localization

4

  

4 [42, 44, 49, 50]

C

1

  

1 [42]

1

  

1 [44]

Type of surgery

4

  

4 [40, 43, 44, 46]

C

2

  

2 [40, 43]

2

  

2 [44, 46]

Radiotherapy

4

  

4 [4345, 49]

C

1

  

1 [43]

2

  

2 [44, 45]

Chemotherapy

3

  

3 [44, 49, 50]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [44]

Comorbidity

3

  

3 [39, 41, 47]

C

1

  

1 [41]

1

  

1 [47]

Chemotherapy cycle

2

  

2 [43, 50]

C

1

  

1 [43]

0

   

Type of chemotherapy

2

  

2 [40, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

0

   

Surgery

2

  

2 [45, 49]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [45]

Psychological

             

Attitude

6

  

6 [39, 40, 44, 45, 49, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

2

  

2 [44, 45]

Intention

6

1 [45]

 

5 [39, 40, 44, 49, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

2

1 [45]

 

1 [44]

Perceived behavioral control

6

3 [39, 44, 49]

 

3 [40, 45, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

2

1 [44]

 

1 [45]

Social norms

6

  

6 [39, 40, 44, 45, 49, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

2

  

2 [44, 45]

Quality of life

6

  

6 [40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 50]

C

3

  

3 [40, 41, 43]

2

  

2 [45, 46]

Stage of change

5

3 [4446]

 

2 [45, 48]

C

0

   

5

3 [4446]

 

2 [45, 48]

Fatigue

5

 

1 [42]

4 [40, 43, 45, 50]

C

3

 

1 [42]

2 [40, 43]

1

  

1 [45]

Depression

4

 

1 [40]

3 [41, 46, 50]

C

2

 

1 [40]

1 [41]

1

  

1 [46]

Self-efficacy

3

1 [48]

 

2 [39, 50]

C

0

   

1

1 [48]

  

Anxiety

3

  

3 [40, 46, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

1

  

1 [46]

Extraversion

2

1 [49]

 

1 [44]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [44]

Distress

2

  

2 [41, 42]

C

2

  

2 [41, 42]

0

   

Neuroticism

2

  

2 [44, 49]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [44]

Openness

2

  

2 [44, 49]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [44]

Agreeable

2

  

2 [44, 49]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [44]

Conscientiousness

2

  

2 [44, 49]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [44]

Self-esteem

2

  

2 [40, 50]

C

1

  

1 [40]

0

   

Happiness

2

  

2 [46, 50]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [46]

Physical

             

Exercise history

3

3 [42, 47, 50]

  

B

1

1 [42]

  

1

1 [47, 50]

  

Body mass index

10

 

2 [46, 50]

8 [3945, 47]

C

4

  

4 [4043]

4

 

1 [46]

3 [44, 45, 47]

PA at baseline

7

  

7 [40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 48, 49]

C

3

  

3 [40, 41, 43]

3

  

3 [44, 46, 48]

Body composition

6

  

6 [40, 43, 44, 46, 49, 50]

C

2

  

2 [40, 43]

2

  

2 [44, 46]

Cardiovascular fitness

5

2 [40, 42]

 

3 [44, 49, 50]

C

2

2 [40, 42]

  

1

  

1 [44]

Physical functioning

4

1 [41]

 

3 [42, 43, 50]

C

3

1 [41]

 

2 [42, 43]

0

   

Muscle strength

3

  

3 [40, 41, 45]

C

2

  

2 [40, 41]

1

  

1 [45]

Flexibility

2

  

2 [44, 49]

C

0

   

1

  

1 [44]

Environmental

             

Fitness center

2

1 [40]

 

1 [45]

C

1

1 [40]

  

1

  

1 [45]

  1. N+, number of studies showing a positive association; N-, number of studies showing a negative association; N0, number of studies showing no association; LoE, Level of Evidence: A. strong evidence; B. moderate evidence; C. insufficient evidence.
  2. PA: physical activity.