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Table 3 Determinants of exercise adherence

From: Determinants of exercise adherence and maintenance among cancer survivors: a systematic review

  Overall During treatment After treatment
  N N + (ref) N- (ref) N0 (ref) LoE N N + (ref) N- (ref) N0 (ref) N N + (ref) N- (ref) N0 (ref)
Demographic & Clinical              
Age 12 1 [50] 1 [45] 10 [3949] C 4    4 [4043] 5   1 [45] 4 [44, 4648]
Being married 10 1 [47] 1 [42] 8 [40, 41, 4446, 4850] C 3   1 [42] 2 [40, 41] 5 1 [47]   4 [4446, 48]
Education 9    9 [4042, 4446, 4850] C 3    3 [4042] 4    4 [4446, 48]
Employment 8   1 [44] 7 [40, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 50] C 3    3 [40, 42, 43] 3   1 [44] 2 [45, 47]
Gender 6 2 [39, 49]   4 [41, 42, 44, 50] C 2    2 [41, 42] 1    1 [44]
Income 5    5 [40, 44, 45, 49, 50] C 1    1 [40] 2    2 [44, 45]
Smoking 4   1 [50] 3 [39, 40, 45] C 1    1 [40] 1    1 [45]
Race 2    2 [41, 42] C 2    2 [41, 42] 0    
Disease stage 10 1 [40]   9 [4250] C 3 1 [40]   2 [42, 43] 5    5 [4448]
Time since diagnosis/treatment 7    7 [4450] C 0     5    5 [4448]
Type of treatment 5 2 [44, 50]   3 [42, 46, 47] C 1    1 [42] 3 1 [44]   2 [46, 47]
Tumor localization 4    4 [42, 44, 49, 50] C 1    1 [42] 1    1 [44]
Type of surgery 4    4 [40, 43, 44, 46] C 2    2 [40, 43] 2    2 [44, 46]
Radiotherapy 4    4 [4345, 49] C 1    1 [43] 2    2 [44, 45]
Chemotherapy 3    3 [44, 49, 50] C 0     1    1 [44]
Comorbidity 3    3 [39, 41, 47] C 1    1 [41] 1    1 [47]
Chemotherapy cycle 2    2 [43, 50] C 1    1 [43] 0    
Type of chemotherapy 2    2 [40, 50] C 1    1 [40] 0    
Surgery 2    2 [45, 49] C 0     1    1 [45]
Psychological              
Attitude 6    6 [39, 40, 44, 45, 49, 50] C 1    1 [40] 2    2 [44, 45]
Intention 6 1 [45]   5 [39, 40, 44, 49, 50] C 1    1 [40] 2 1 [45]   1 [44]
Perceived behavioral control 6 3 [39, 44, 49]   3 [40, 45, 50] C 1    1 [40] 2 1 [44]   1 [45]
Social norms 6    6 [39, 40, 44, 45, 49, 50] C 1    1 [40] 2    2 [44, 45]
Quality of life 6    6 [40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 50] C 3    3 [40, 41, 43] 2    2 [45, 46]
Stage of change 5 3 [4446]   2 [45, 48] C 0     5 3 [4446]   2 [45, 48]
Fatigue 5   1 [42] 4 [40, 43, 45, 50] C 3   1 [42] 2 [40, 43] 1    1 [45]
Depression 4   1 [40] 3 [41, 46, 50] C 2   1 [40] 1 [41] 1    1 [46]
Self-efficacy 3 1 [48]   2 [39, 50] C 0     1 1 [48]   
Anxiety 3    3 [40, 46, 50] C 1    1 [40] 1    1 [46]
Extraversion 2 1 [49]   1 [44] C 0     1    1 [44]
Distress 2    2 [41, 42] C 2    2 [41, 42] 0    
Neuroticism 2    2 [44, 49] C 0     1    1 [44]
Openness 2    2 [44, 49] C 0     1    1 [44]
Agreeable 2    2 [44, 49] C 0     1    1 [44]
Conscientiousness 2    2 [44, 49] C 0     1    1 [44]
Self-esteem 2    2 [40, 50] C 1    1 [40] 0    
Happiness 2    2 [46, 50] C 0     1    1 [46]
Physical              
Exercise history 3 3 [42, 47, 50]    B 1 1 [42]    1 1 [47, 50]   
Body mass index 10   2 [46, 50] 8 [3945, 47] C 4    4 [4043] 4   1 [46] 3 [44, 45, 47]
PA at baseline 7    7 [40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 48, 49] C 3    3 [40, 41, 43] 3    3 [44, 46, 48]
Body composition 6    6 [40, 43, 44, 46, 49, 50] C 2    2 [40, 43] 2    2 [44, 46]
Cardiovascular fitness 5 2 [40, 42]   3 [44, 49, 50] C 2 2 [40, 42]    1    1 [44]
Physical functioning 4 1 [41]   3 [42, 43, 50] C 3 1 [41]   2 [42, 43] 0    
Muscle strength 3    3 [40, 41, 45] C 2    2 [40, 41] 1    1 [45]
Flexibility 2    2 [44, 49] C 0     1    1 [44]
Environmental              
Fitness center 2 1 [40]   1 [45] C 1 1 [40]    1    1 [45]
  1. N+, number of studies showing a positive association; N-, number of studies showing a negative association; N0, number of studies showing no association; LoE, Level of Evidence: A. strong evidence; B. moderate evidence; C. insufficient evidence.
  2. PA: physical activity.