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Table 3 Results of the (logistic) regression analyses for the associations of friend norm, friend modelling, parental norm, parental modelling and family rules with high soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation

From: Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours – the ENERGY cross-sectional study

  Soft drink intake (> 200ml/day) TV viewing (min/week) Daily breakfast consumption Sport participation (min/week)
  ORa 95% CI ba 95% CI ORa 95% CI ba 95% CI
Friend norm (If I <do specific behaviour> my friends think this is.....) Bad- very bad 0.66 .523 .833 -80.3 -116.0 -44.6 0.50 0.31 0.80 n.c. b   
Neither good nor bad Reference Reference Reference Reference
Good - very good 1.67 1.50 1.86 97.0 75.7 118.4 44.0 29.7 58.4
Friend modelling (How often do your friends <specific behaviour>....) Never -not often 0.54 0.44 0.67 -88.1 -146.2 -30.0 0.45 0.34 0.58 n.c.b   
Sometimes Reference Reference Reference Reference
Often - always 2.04 1.83 2.27 129.0 106.5 151.4 36.1 26.0 46.1
Parental norm (If I <do specific behaviour> my parents think this is.....) Bad- very bad 0.51 0.46 0.58 Reference 0.32 0.16 0.65 n.c.b   
Neither good nor bad Reference Reference n.c.b   
Good - very good 2.00 1.71 2.34 148.4 112.5 184.3 n.c.b   
Parental modelling (how often do your parents <specific behaviour>....) Never -not often 0.39 0.35 0.44 Reference 0.38 0.34 0.44 -25.1 -35.2 -15.0
Sometimes Reference Reference Reference
Often - always 2.29 1.98 2.65 180.2 161.2 199.2 36.4 28.2 44.5
family rules (Do your parents have rules about….) No Reference Reference Reference Reference
Yes 0.60 0.54 0.66 -166.5 -185.5 -147.5 1.71 1.54 1.90 24.2 16.5 31.8
  1. aall models are adjusted for sex, age and country; Bold – significant at p < 0.05; b n.c – not calculated (due to very small group(s)).