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Table 1 Summary of studies of the correlates of dog walking

From: How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates

Author Study type N Location Outcomes studied Confounding considered?
   Owner   Owner PA  
Oka and Shibata, 2012 [27] Cross-sectional survey 930 adult DO Japan DW yes/no Yes
Rohlf et al., 2012 [23] Cross-sectional survey (non-significant variables in model unknown) 1016 adult DO Australia Dog exercise frequency Yes
Rhodes et al., 2012 [41] Randomised Controlled Trial 58 inactive DO adults Canada DW min/week and pedometer step count Yes
Degeling et al., 2012 [40] Cross-sectional survey 241 DO Canada DW frequency, achieving 150 m/week Yes
Arnberger and Eder, 2012 [52] Cross-sectional survey of visitors 330 visitors Austria Perceptions of parks and coping behaviours No
Ioja et al., 2011 [56] Park observation and visitor perception survey 5240 DO and NDO adults Romania Frequency and length of visits plus perceptions of parks No
Heuberger and Wakshlag, 2011 [36] Cross-sectional survey 318 DO adults USA Dogs activity, owner’s exercise No
McCormack et al., 2011 [58] Cross-sectional survey 506 DO adults Canada DW yes/no, DW frequency Yes
Scheibeck et al., 2011 [60] Qualitative interview 23 elderly DO Austria DW frequency and distance No
Hoerster et al., 2011 [26] Cross-sectional survey (some non-significant variables unknown) 984 adult DO USA DW yes/no Yes
Christian et al., 2010 [25] Cross-sectional survey 483 adult DW Australia Regular/irregular DW Yes
Rohlf et al., 2010 [43] Cross-sectional survey of exercise intentions (non-significant variables in model unknown) 182 adult DO Australia Dog exercise intentions, dog exercise amount (frequency and duration) Yes
Westgarth et al., 2009 [34] Cross-sectional survey 224 DO households UK Number of areas visited on dog walks No
Lee et al., 2009 [57] ‘Dog park’ observation and user perception survey
‘Dog park’ observation and user perception survey
267 DO who use dog parks USA Perceptions of dog park use No
Coleman et al., 2008 [59] Cross-sectional survey 2199 adult DO and NDO USA DW yes/no No
Cutt et al., 2008a [16] Qualitative focus groups 51 adult DO Australia Barriers and motivators to DW No
Knight and Edwards, 2008 [47] Qualitative focus groups 65 adult DW UK Exploring aspects of DO and DW No
Cutt et al., 2008b [24] Cross-sectional survey 629 adult DO Australia DW yes/no Yes
Thorpe et al., 2006 [83] Cross-sectional survey 394 DO USA DW yes/no No
Ham and Epping, 2006 [101] Cross-sectional survey 1282 DW youth and adults USA DW frequency and duration No
Brown and Rhodes, 2006 [42] Cross-sectional survey 351 adult NDO and DO Canada Walk frequency and duration No
Schofield et al., 2005 [102] Cross-sectional survey 1237 adult NDO and DO Australia Walking for leisure No
Suminski et al., 2005 [48] Cross-sectional survey 474 adult NDO and DO USA DW yes/no Yes
Carver et al., 2005 [49] Cross-sectional survey (non-significant variables not presented) 347 adolescents Australia DW yes/no weekends Yes
Arnberger and Hinterberger, 2003 [51] Observations of park use and cross-sectional survey 140 DW 420 NDW interviewed Austria Frequency and duration of park visit No
   Dog   Dog PA  
Westgarth et al., 2008 [35] Cross-sectional survey 279 dogs UK Walk frequency and duration No
Tami et al., 2008 [37] Cross-sectional survey 181 dogs (Argentine Dogos) Italy Daily walk duration No
Masters and McGreevy, 2008 [103] Cross-sectional survey (non-significant findings not presented) 690 dogs Australia Walk frequency No
Robertson, 2003 [20] Cross-sectional survey 860 dogs Australia Land exercise yes/no No
Kobelt et al., 2003 [39] Cross-sectional survey 254 dogs Australia Walk frequency No
Podberscek and Serpell, 1997 [38] Cross-sectional survey 435 dogs (English Cocker Spaniels) UK Frequency and duration of walks/exercise No
  1. PA = Physical activity, DO = Dog ownership or dog owner, NDO = Non-dog owner, DW = Dog walking or dog walker (owner who walks their dog), NDW = Non-dog walker (owner who does not walk their dog).
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