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Table 2 Evidence of the DOG-RELATED (demographic and dog-owner relationship) correlates of dog walking

From: How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates

   Evidence of a positive association Evidence of a negative association No evidence of an association Where some elements show evidence of a positive association but others no evidence of an association
Dog demographic Number of dogs 34 16*, 103 40, 26, 25, 24  
Dog size 35, 102   27, 34, 24, 42, 39  
Dog type/breed 34   20  
Dogs age   36, 35, 20 26, 34 16*
Dog sex    34, 20  
Dog neutered 103   34, 20  
Dogs health/ability 16*   26, 24  
Dog weight status**   20 25, 24  
Dog behaviour problems   37, 38, 39 24, 26  
Perceived exercise requirements 16*, 23, 40, 41   26  
Dog-owner relationship Dog attachment/interaction 23, 27   24  
Dog encourages/supports walking +companionship 16*, 24, 25, 26    
Dog obligation 16*, 26, 42    
Feelings of guilt 16*    
Perceived benefits dog health 16*, 41   24, 25, 26  
Perceived benefits dog behaviour 16*   24, 25  
Valuation of exercise for dog 41, 43    
Knowing dog enjoys going for a walk    24, 25  
  1. *qualitative evidence. For quantitative observational studies, bolded citation number = multivariable adjusted evidence or unbolded citation number = univariable evidence. **Studies specifically concerning dog obesity/weight status alone have been reported elsewhere so were excluded from the key studies review and treated as supplementary information.
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