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Table 3 Evidence of the SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT correlates of dog walking

From: How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates

  Evidence of a positive association Evidence of a negative association No evidence of an association
Perception that DW promotes social engagement 16*, 47*   26
Subjective norm of significant others about dog walking 23, 24, 42   25
Other people’s dogs (e.g. large, uncontrolled, roaming, untrained, off leash, aggressive, fear)   16*, 49  
Other dog owners not picking up after dog   16*  
Safety concerns   47*, 48, 49 24, 26
DW perceived as a deterrent for local crime/increasing feelings of safety 16*, 47*   
Conflict with other users of DW areas   16*  
Crowding in DW areas   51, 52*  
  1. DW=Dog walking. *qualitative evidence. For quantitative observational studies, bolded citation number = multivariable adjusted evidence or unbolded citation number = univariable evidence.