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Table 4 Evidence of the PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT correlates of dog walking

From: How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates

  Evidence of a positive association Evidence of a negative association No evidence of an association
Accessibility/proximity to walking areas (particularly off-leash) 56*, 25, 43, 57, 16*, 49, 51 58 24, 48
Indicate take dog to ‘dog park’ specific area    26
Park aesthetics/footpath provision/size/lighting/fencing 16*, 56*   
Dog-supportive features/enrichments and separate children’s play area 16*, 25, 56*   24, 58
Neighbourhood street pattern    48
Neighbourhood aesthetics    26, 48
Neighbourhood walkability 59   
Urbanicity    101
Type of residence (attached vs separate) 40, 58, 60*   27
Backyard size   16* 39
Weather/temperature   57* 51
  1. *qualitative evidence. For quantitative observational studies, bolded citation number = multivariable adjusted evidence or unbolded citation number = univariable evidence.
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