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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses of BMI and selected educational outcomes among the sample

From: Educational outcomes associated with childhood obesity in the United States: cross-sectional results from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health

  School Absences
  Model Ia Model IIb Model IIIc
BMI OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Overweight (85th to <95th percentile) 0.97 0.76-1.23 0.783 0.98 0.76-1.27 0.882 0.94 0.72-1.22 0.628
Obese (≥95th percentile) 1.69 1.36-2.11 <0.001 1.67 1.29-2.16 <0.001 1.49 1.13-1.96 0.005
  School Problems
  Model I Model II Model III
BMI OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Overweight (85th to <95th percentile) 1.42 1.24-1.62 <0.001 1.24 1.08-1.43 0.002 1.22 1.06-1.40 0.006
Obese (≥95th percentile) 1.58 1.38-1.80 <0.001 1.21 1.05-1.40 0.007 1.17 1.01-1.35 0.031
  Grade Repeated
  Model I Model II Model III
BMI OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Overweight (85th to <95th percentile) 1.24 1.01-1.52 0.037 1.01 0.81-1.25 0.946 1.01 0.81-1.25 0.959
Obese (≥95th percentile) 1.48 1.24-1.76 <0.001 0.97 0.80-1.17 0.720 0.94 0.78-1.14 0.548
  Low School Engagement
  Model I Model II Model III
BMI OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Overweight (85th to <95th percentile) 1.20 1.05-1.39 0.044 1.10 0.95-1.28 0.215 1.10 0.94-1.28 0.222
Obese (≥95th percentile) 1.49 1.30-1.71 0.261 1.21 1.04-1.41 0.014 1.18 1.02-1.38 0.032
  1. Notes: OR = odds ratio. CI = confidence interval. Reference category for BMI is non-overweight (<85th percentile).
  2. a. Model I: unadjusted for the other covariates.
  3. b. Model II: adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics including age, gender, race/ethnicity, household composition, place of residence, parental education, and household poverty level.
  4. c. Model III: fully adjusted for all sociodemographic and intervening variables, including overall health status and healthcare visits. The full models for repeated grade and school engagement exclude healthcare visits.