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Table 3 Relative quantity of students’ overall beverage consumption* associated with state soda ban† and school SSB vending machine access‡, by race and gender

From: The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

  Soda allowed in school Soda banned in school
  Vending machineδ No vending machine Vending machine No vending machine
  RR 95% CI p RR 95% CI p RR 95% CI p RR 95% CI p
Race/ethnicity             
Non-Hispanic Whites             
Diet soda - - - 1.26 0.78, 2.04 .34 0.95 0.74, 1.22 .69 0.79 0.57, 1.09 .15
Sports drinks - - - 1.24 0.96, 1.60 .10 1.21 1.02, 1.44 .03 1.16 0.83, 1.60 .38
Energy drinks - - - 1.10 0.83, 1.45 .51 1.09 0.81, 1.46 .57 0.86 0.61, 1.21 .37
Coffee/tea - - - 1.22 0.92, 1.60 .17 1.25 1.01, 1.55 .04 1.19 0.94, 1.52 .15
Other SSBs - - - 1.09 0.92, 1.29 .32 1.20 0.98, 1.47 .08 1.26 1.05, 1.51 .02
Non-Hispanic Blacks             
Diet soda - - - 0.89 0.62, 1.27 .52 1.06 0.75, 1.50 .73 0.95 0.50, 1.82 .88
Sports drinks - - - 0.97 0.78, 1.21 .81 1.49 1.16, 1.92 .003 1.31 0.82, 2.09 .25
Energy drinks - - - 1.21 0.79, 1.85 .36 1.70 1.09, 2.65 .02 1.48 0.76, 2.89 .25
Coffee/tea - - - 0.98 0.71, 1.36 .91 1.14 0.90, 1.46 .27 1.18 0.66, 2.13 .57
Other SSBs - - - 1.02 0.81, 1.28 .85 1.28 1.09, 1.51 .004 1.25 0.92, 1.71 .15
Hispanics             
Diet soda - - - 0.74 0.44, 1.26 .27 1.41 1.04, 1.92 .03 1.31 0.87, 1.98 .19
Sports drinks - - - 1.88 0.80, 4.44 .15 1.20 0.88, 1.64 .25 1.26 0.99, 1.61 .06
Energy drinks - - - 2.06 0.79, 5.40 .14 1.44 0.88, 2.36 .15 1.29 0.90, 1.85 .16
Coffee/tea - - - 1.46 0.92, 2.31 .11 0.89 0.67, 1.16 .37 0.92 0.66, 1.30 .65
Other SSBs - - - 0.98 0.66, 1.45 .92 1.03 0.79, 1.35 .81 1.06 0.87, 1.28 .58
Gender             
Boys             
Diet soda - - - 1.47 0.90, 2.38 .12 1.39 1.11, 1.74 .005 1.15 0.77, 1.71 .48
Sports drinks - - - 1.21 0.94, 1.56 .14 1.24 1.06, 1.44 .01 1.11 0.88, 1.40 .36
Energy drinks - - - 1.51 1.08, 2.10 .02 1.41 1.04, 1.92 .03 0.94 0.67, 1.33 .73
Coffee/tea - - - 1.46 1.14, 1.85 .003 1.08 0.86, 1.36 .51 0.93 0.73, 1.18 .52
Other SSBs - - - 1.02 0.82, 1.28 .82 1.09 0.87, 1.36 .45 1.02 0.84, 1.23 .87
Girls             
Diet soda - - - 1.19 0.83, 1.71 .35 0.95 0.72, 1.25 .71 1.11 0.83, 1.47 .48
Sports drinks - - - 1.11 0.85, 1.44 .44 1.27 1.09, 1.47 .002 1.33 0.92, 1.94 .13
Energy drinks - - - 1.10 0.72, 1.67 .66 1.11 0.73, 1.67 .62 1.31 0.71, 2.43 .39
Coffee/tea - - - 1.06 0.79, 1.42 .68 1.25 1.06, 1.47 .01 1.33 0.99, 1.80 .06
Other SSBs - - - 1.14 0.90, 1.45 .27 1.22 0.93, 1.59 .15 1.22 0.99, 1.50 .06
  1. * Estimated from zero-inflated negative binomial model; table only presents results from the negative binomial portion of the model. Adjusted for race/ethnicity (when stratifying by sex), sex (when stratifying by race/ethnicity), grade, state median income, Census region, and home food access (negative binomial portion), and race/ethnicity, sex, grade, and home food access (logistic portion)
  2. State law bans the sale of soda in vending machines, school stores, and cafeterias (a la carte)
  3. Vending machine that sells “soda or pop, sports drinks, or fruit drinks that are not 100% juice, such as Coke, Gatorade, or Sunny Delight”
  4. δ Reference group
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