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Table 4 Baseline (age 25) predictors of fruits and vegetable and whole grain intake at follow up (age 33 years). Multiple linear regression analyses; unstandardized (B) and standardized regression coefficients (β). The Oslo Youth Study 1991 – 1999.

From: Psychosocial predictors of eating habits among adults in their mid-30s: The Oslo Youth Study follow-up 1991–1999

Dietary habits at follow-up Predictors Daily fruits and vegetable intake Daily whole grain intake
Model 1 Men Women Men Women
Psychosocial factors at baseline B β B β B β B β
Attitude 10.43 0.17* 1.07 0.02 -1.51 -0.04 3.84 0.13
Subjective norm -12.92 -0.18* -4.41 -0.05 -2.72 -0.06 -7.91 -0.22**
Perceived behaviour control -11.48 -0.03 88.07 0.21** 23.68 0.09 22.18 0.12
Perceived social norms 33.52 0.08 79.74 0.18** 5.98 0.02 4.18 0.02
Intention -5.33 -0.03 4.99 0.02 12.08 0.09 1.57 0.02
R2/R2 adjusted, % 3.7/1.6 10.1/8.4 2.1/0.0 7.1/5.4
Model 2         
Model 1 + Demographic factors at follow-up         
Attitude 11.17 0.18* 1.66 0.02 -1.31 -0.03 3.67 0.12
Subjective norm -12.51 -0.17* -2.46 -0.03 -1.56 -0.03 -7.41 -0.20**
Perceived behaviour control -17.02 -0.04 85.70 0.20** 16.62 0.06 18.88 0.10
Perceived social norms 36.35 0.09 66.43 0.15* 2.64 0.01 2.19 0.01
Intention -6.54 -0.03 7.36 0.02 10.89 0.08 1.55 0.02
Education 9.70 0.06 25.40 0.13* 18.03 0.17* 15.24 0.17*
Household income 2.03 0.02 -4.21 -0.03 1.92 0.02 1.21 0.02
Marital status -27.58 -0.06 -73.40 -0.15 9.61 0.03 -1.86 -0.01
Children -4.16 -0.02 17.05 0.08 -0.37 -0.00 -8.30 -0.08
R2/R2 adjusted, % 4.7/0.8 14.2/11.2 5.1/1.3 11.8/8.7
Model 3         
Model 2 + baseline eating behaviour         
Attitude 12.40 0.20* 0.91 0.01 -2.42 -0.06 3.85 0.12
Subjective norm -11.06 -0.15* 0.01 0.00 1.02 0.02 -5.76 -0.16*
Perceived behaviour control -28.44 -0.07 59.38 0.14* 11.60 0.04 10.72 0.06
Perceived social norms 19.52 0.05 52.97 0.12* -10.87 -0.04 -6.04 -0.03
Intention -3.04 -0.02 1.16 0.01 7.21 0.06 -0.79 -0.01
Education 0.08 0.00 13.05 0.07 14.63 0.14* 11.02 0.13*
Household income -0.98 -0.01 -2.97 -0.02 -1.96 -0.02 0.54 0.01
Marital status -37.43 -0.09 -56.32 -0.12 17.87 0.06 -1.79 -0.01
Children -4.73 -0.03 11.99 0.05 0.63 0.01 -8.33 -0.09
Baseline eating behaviour† 75.27 0.31** 79.65 0.32** 31.79 0.25*** 30.68 0.31***
R2/R2 adjusted, % 13.2/9.3 23.1/20.1 10.7/6.6 20.2/17.1
  1. Marital status is coded 1 = married, 2 = single/divorced/widow, while all other variables are coded in ascending order. † The corresponding eating behaviour in 1991: fruit and vegetable score in 1991 for fruit and vegetable intake in 1999 (grams per day), whole grain score in 1991 for whole grain intake in 1999 (grams per day), *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.