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Table 4 Multilevel Modeling Analyses Predicting Health Behavior after an Intervention and the Cross-Level Interaction between Individual Characteristics and Times

From: Behavior change following a self-management intervention for housebound older adults with arthritis: an experimental study

   Baseline Pre-intervention Change from Baseline Post-intervention Change from Baseline
Within-Subject Fixed Effects   Parameter Coeff. SE Parameter Coeff. SE Parameter Coeff. SE
Occurrence of exercise Intercept γ00 1.66 .15 γ10 -.39 .09 γ20 -.30 .09
  Group γ01 .07 .20 γ11 .25 .11 γ21 .58* .11
Variety of exercises Intercept γ00 .40 .13 γ10 -.25 .19 γ20 -.14 .19
  Group γ01 -.07 .17 γ11 .22 .24 γ21 .43* .24
- Occurrence of stretching Intercept γ00 .56 .19 γ10 -.27 .14 γ20 -.18 .14
  Group γ01 .19 .24 γ11 .11 .18 γ21 .67* .17
- Occurrence of walking Intercept γ00 .56 .22 γ10 -.49 .14 γ20 -.72 .16
  Group γ01 -.22 .29 γ11 .41 .19 γ21 .76* .21
- Occurrence of strengthening exercises Intercept γ00 -.48 .29 γ10 -.42 .19 γ20 .05 .18
  Group γ01 .60 .37 γ11 .20 .24 γ21 .14 .22
- Occurrence of relaxation activities Intercept γ00 1.17 .26 γ10 -.15 .09 γ20 -.20 .09
  Group γ01 -.89 .35 γ11 .54 .13 γ21 .79* .13
Variety of relaxation activities Intercept γ00 .07 .18 γ10 -.17 .19 γ20 -.09 .20
  Group γ01 -.69 .26 γ11 .60 .29 γ21 .60 .22
Occurrence of leisure activities Intercept γ00 1.67 .12 γ10 .35 .08 γ20 .23 .09
  Group γ01 .09 .15 γ11 -.34 .11 γ21 -.29 .12
Variety of leisure activities Intercept γ00 .17 .14 γ10 .37 .18 γ20 .29 .19
  Group γ01 .05 .18 γ11 -.27 .24 γ21 -.07* .25
Variety of everyday coping behaviors Intercept γ00 2.14 .06 γ10 -.00 .07 γ20 .09 .07
  Group γ01 -.02 .07 γ11 .05 .09 γ21 .02 .09
Social networks Intercept γ00 6.48 .28 γ10 -.46 .18 γ20 -.09 .19
  Group γ01 -.16 .37 γ11 .25 .24 γ21 .29 .26
  1. * p < .05
  2. Significance of coefficient γ21 is indicative of intervention effects using the following model:
  3. Level 1 model: Outcome = β0j + β1jX1 + β2jX2+ rij
  4. Level 2 model: T1 β0j = γ00 + γ01 Grj + uoj
  5. T2 β1j = γ10 + γ11 Grj
  6. T3 β2j = γ20 + γ21 Grj
  7. Meaning of Coefficients:
  8. γ00 = Predicted value in outcome variable at baseline for participants in control group
  9. γ01 Grj = Predicted difference in outcome variable at baseline for participants in experimental group
  10. γ10 = Predicted change in outcome variable from baseline to pre-intervention for participants in control group
  11. γ11 Grj = Predicted difference in change in outcome variable from baseline to pre-intervention for participants in experimental group
  12. γ20 = Predicted change in outcome variable from baseline to post-intervention for participants in control
  13. γ21 Grj = Predicted difference in change in outcome variable from baseline to post-intervention for participants in experimental group.
  14. where i: 1 .....N individuals ; rij: level 1 error term ; γ : parameter coefficients ; uoj: level-2 random effect ; β: coefficient; Gr: group membership (1 = experimental, 0 = control) ; X1: dummy variable (1 = pre-intervention, 0 = otherwise) ; X2: dummy variable(1 = post-intervention, 0 = otherwise)