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Table 2 Validity assessment scheme: design and methodological characteristics of all included papers

From: Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: quantitative studies

Characteristics Reference no.
World part/country
Asia Bahrain: 17 Bangladesh: 18 China: 19, 20 India: 21
Europe Belgium: 22, 23, 24, 25
Denmark: 26
England: 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32
Finland: 33, 34, 35
Greece: 36
Luxembourg: 37
Netherlands: 38
Northern Ireland: 39, 40
Norway: 41, 42, 43
Scotland: 44, 45, 46, 47
Sweden: 48, 49, 50, 51, 52
 
North America Canada: 53, 54
USA: 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102
Oceania Australia: 103, 104, 105, 106 New Zealand: 107, 108 Tasmania: 109, 110, 111, 112, 113  
South America Costa Rica: 114
Design
Longitudinal 20, 39, 42, 46, 52, 59, 65, 79
Cross-sectional 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114
Theoretical basis (some papers may be marked more than once)
Explicitly theory based Social Cognitive Theory: 91, 93
Theory of Planned Behaviour: 79
The Stages-of-Change Trans-theoretical Model: 61
Theoretical framework Social Cognitive Theory: 41, 42, 43, 64, 67, 73, 75, 82, 86, 90, 102
Theory of Planned Behaviour: 22, 82
Social Learning Theory: 22
Problem Behaviour Theory: 43
No theory applied 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114
Sample size (individual level)
Not reported 73
< 500 18, 21, 22, 27, 33, 45, 50, 52, 53, 56, 62, 64, 66, 67, 71, 74, 77, 83, 88, 93, 95, 102, 107, 114
500–1000 19, 20, 26, 31, 34, 39, 40, 42, 43, 46, 59, 63, 65, 72, 76, 92, 104, 105, 106, 108
> 1000 17, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 44, 47, 48, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 68, 69, 70, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113,
Age groups
Single age group 28, 30, 32, 35, 41, 43, 50, 56, 57, 61, 69, 71, 75, 76, 82, 86, 88, 93, 97, 105, 107, 108
Multiple age groups/grades 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 74, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114
Not specified 72, 73
Response rate (individual level)
Not reported 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 31, 34, 36, 38, 40, 47, 49, 50, 53, 54, 60, 62, 64, 66, 71, 73, 74, 77, 78, 85, 88, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 100, 101, 103, 109, 113
< 40% 29, 45
40%–70% 22, 30, 52, 55, 56, 65, 70, 81, 84, 91, 99, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108
71%–90% 28, 32, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 51, 58, 59, 63, 67, 68, 69, 72, 76, 80, 83, 86, 87, 89, 90, 97, 98, 110, 111, 112
91%–100% 19, 26, 27, 33, 57, 61, 75, 79, 82, 106, 114,
Representative sample
Information not available in paper 20, 23, 27, 28, 34, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 65, 67, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 83, 88, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 100, 106, 108
Not representative beyond study population 19, 21, 22, 29, 31, 32, 40, 45, 47, 53, 57, 61, 62, 64, 68, 70, 71, 76, 78, 85, 86, 89, 90, 95, 103, 105, 107, 114
Representative for restricted area 17, 18, 33, 46, 49, 51, 52, 63, 66, 79, 82, 84, 87,
Representative for region/county 26, 30, 35, 37, 41, 42, 43, 48, 50, 99, 101, 102
Representative for state/nation 24, 25, 36, 38, 39, 44, 58, 80, 81, 94, 98, 104, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113
Item descriptions
No detailed item descriptions (precise wording) 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 37, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 99, 100, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114
Some items described in details (precise wording) 19, 23, 26, 28, 33, 38, 41, 59, 60, 70, 72, 73, 79, 81, 85, 87, 96, 97, 98, 101, 104,
All items described in details (precise wording) 32, 36, 42, 44, 48, 94
Instrument for measuring F and/or V intake
FFQ 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 57, 59, 60, 61, 68, 69, 70, 72, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 106, 108, 109, 113
24-h-recall 17, 34, 58, 66, 71, 75, 76, 83, 88, 92, 93, 103, 104, 105, 107
Food diary/record 27, 29, 30, 31, 45, 55, 64, 67, 73, 74, 77, 91, 110, 111, 112, 114
Others 39, 51, 56, 62, 63, 65, 89, 90
Information not provided 54
Differentiation of outcome measure
Single F and/or V items 47, 53, 108, 109, 113
Only fruit 24, 25, 38, 40, 62, 88
Only vegetables 35
F and V separately 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 56, 60, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 76, 77, 78, 83, 85, 87, 89, 95, 97, 98, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 112, 114
F and V combined 19, 20, 28, 30, 32, 41, 42, 43, 57, 58, 61, 64, 70, 71, 75, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 86, 90, 91, 93, 94, 96, 101, 102, 110, 111
Separately and combined 54, 55, 59, 67, 72, 73, 74, 92, 99
Validity of applied measurements
No information 17, 20, 24, 27, 31, 36, 39, 46, 47, 49, 57, 58, 60, 71, 74, 76, 77, 78, 81, 84, 98, 103, 105, 106, 107, 114
Only reference(s) to former publications 21, 23, 25, 29, 30, 32, 44, 45, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 59, 65, 68, 69, 70, 72, 80, 83, 87, 88, 89, 92, 99, 104, 110, 111, 112
Validity assessed for all or some items/scales within the applied study population 18, 19, 22, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 55, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 73, 75, 79, 82, 85, 86, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 108, 109, 113
Analysis
Uni-variate (including stratified analyses) 18, 21, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47, 51, 53, 57, 60, 65, 78, 83, 89, 90, 94, 95, 101, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114
Multivariate 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 32, 35, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 113
Descriptive 17, 26, 27, 54, 62, 71, 77, 88, 107
Not specified 74
  1. F = fruit; V = vegetables; FFQ = food frequency questionnaire; 24-h recall = 24 hour recall