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Table 3 Summary of potential determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents. Determinants included in at least three papers.

From: Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: quantitative studies

Determinant variable Association/group with highest level of intake (Reference no.) No association (Reference no.)
Sociodemographic factors
Gender Girls: 19, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 36, 37, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 50, 52, 53, 55, 63, 77, 85, 92, 100, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109
Boys: 17, 60, 110, 114
26, 28, 40, 57, 65, 67, 74, 77, 80, 82, 84, 90, 98, 99, 101, 103, 111, 112
Age/grade Neg. assoc: 23, 24, 25, 36, 37, 40, 63, 80, 98, 113
Pos. assoc: 110, 111, 112
17, 66, 67, 77, 82, 85, 99, 101, 103
Socioeconomic position (some papers included several measurements and they may therefore be marked twice) Pos. assoc: 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 60, 63, 66, 73, 80, 82, 85, 86, 98, 100, 104, 105, 108, 112
Neg. assoc: 20, 60, 84
18, 19, 20, 24, 28, 33, 34, 50, 55, 63, 66, 74, 80, 82, 99, 100, 103, 110, 111
Race/ethnicity Assoc: 26, 28, 57, 60, 65, 77, 78, 80, 84, 85, 90, 92, 98, 100, 101 55, 63, 67, 74, 82, 99
Urbanisation Rural: 20, 47, 114 19
Personal factors
Preferences Pos. assoc: 41, 42, 56, 63, 67, 73, 82, 86, 91, 109, 113 -
Nutritional knowledge Pos. assoc: 26, 41, 42, 48, 75, 93
Neg. assoc: 82
91
Attitudes Pos. assoc: 22, 79, 86 -
Intentions Pos. assoc: 22, 79 41, 42
Self-efficacy Pos. assoc: 22, 41, 42, 67, 75, 102 86, 91
Outcome expectations Pos. assoc: 91 67, 73, 75, 82
Perceived barriers Low barriers: 79 66, 82
Subjective norms (perception of others' attitude on own diet) Pos. assoc: 43, 79, 82  
Family-related factors
Parental intake Pos. assoc: 22, 41, 45, 72, 75, 102, 109, 113 42
Home availability/accessibility Pos. assoc: 41, 42, 64, 72, 73, 75, 86, 93, 102 41, 64
Family structure Two-parent family: 35, 84, 99, 101 82
Family size   19, 110, 111
Frequency of family meals Pos. assoc: 35, 70, 86, 87, 98 22
Parental style Assoc: 38, 82, 101 22, 43, 102
Parental support for healthy eating/FV Pos. assoc: 22, 86, 102 -
Friends-related factors
Perceived friend intake Pos. assoc: 22, 113 109
School-related factors
Fruit and/or vegetable availability at school Pos. assoc: 42, 73 24
Other foods: Vending machines Neg. assoc: 76 31, 24
Other foods: À la carte program availability Neg. assoc: 76 -
Other foods: Access to snack bar meals Neg. assoc: 63, 65 -
Participating in school lunch programme Pos. assoc: 35, 77, 84 -
Academic achievement Pos. assoc: 35, 85 43
School type Non-public schools: 89, 112 110, 111
Meal patterns/TV watching/eating fast food
Meal frequency Pos. assoc: 43 66, 86
Meal type Pos. assoc: 55, 62, 71, 83, 88 -
Hours of TV watching Neg. assoc: 36, 59, 81, 97 -
Eating fast food Neg. assoc: 58, 68, 96 86
  1. Pos. assoc = positive association; neg. assoc. = negative association; F = fruit; V = vegetables