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Table 4 Summary of infrequently tested determinants of fruit and vegetables consumption among children and adolescents. Determinants included in less than three papers.

From: Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: quantitative studies

Determinant variable Association/group with highest level of intake (Reference no.) No assoc (Ref. no.)
Sociodemographic factors
Country (European) Southern European countries: 25  
Student working status Non-working: 95  
Type of dwelling   50
Personal factors
Evaluation of own diet Pos. assoc: 79  
Motivation (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, preferences) Pos. assoc: 93  
Sweetened beverage preferences   66
Bottled water preferences   66
Stages of change Action/maintenance stage: 61  
Asking/behavioural skills   41, 91
Stress Low levels of stress: 28  
Subjective health complaints   43
Depression Low level of depression: 28 69
Outlook for the future   82
Negative self-evaluation   79
Evaluation of own health   79
Perceived healthiness   109, 113
Spirituality Pos. assoc: 82  
Exposure (former eating of fruit and vegetables)   91
Family-related factors
Number of children in the family   50
Place of residence Living outside family: 46  
Social norms (perception of others attitude on eating FV)   91
Positive relations with parents Pos. assoc: 22, 43  
Family connectedness Pos. assoc: 85  
Family cohesion   22
Family adaptation   22
Family communication Pos. assoc: 101  
Frequency of communication of dislike   22
Use of positive strategies for communication of dislike   22
Use of negative strategies for communication of dislike Neg. assoc: 22  
Number of hours spent without parents Neg. assoc: 101  
Parents present when child leaves and returns from school   98
Shared shopping   22
Children ask for healthy food to be brought from store Pos. assoc: 22  
Food asked for is bought Neg. assoc: 22  
Children preparing their own meals Neg. assoc: 84  
Food decision-making (parent/adolescent)   98
Parents prepare high/low-fat foods   66
Home high/low-fat availability   66
Mean home high/low-fat practice   66
Parental knowledge Pos. assoc: 75  
Parental self-efficacy to serve FV Pos. assoc: 75  
Parental smoking Neg. assoc: 29 43
Parental physical activity   43
Expenditures on food Neg. assoc: 18  
Friends-related factors
Positive relations with friends Pos. assoc: 43  
School-related factors
Using the canteen Non-canteen users: 103  
Lunch source Bringing lunch from home: 99  
School food rules   24
Nutritional education   24
School size   55
Percent of Euro-American students at school Pos. assoc: 55  
Percent of students at school participating in school lunch Pos. assoc: 55  
Annual out-migration rate   55
Liking school Pos. assoc: 35 43
Antisocial behaviour   43
Meal patterns/TV watching/eating fast food
Having regular meals Pos. assoc: 51, 94  
Skipping meals Neg. assoc: 84  
Number of snack meals   66
Snacking during school day Neg. assoc: 35  
Watching TV while eating Neg. assoc: 83  
Computer use Pos. assoc: 97  
Reading/doing homework Pos. assoc: 97  
  1. Pos. assoc. = positive association; neg. assoc. = negative association; F = fruit; V = vegetables