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Table 3 Hierarchical Linear Models Analyses Predicting Exercise Change and Maintenance following the Intervention

From: Long-term maintenance of increased exercise involvement following a self-management intervention for housebound older adults with arthritis

   Baseline Pre-intervention Post-intervention 1 Post-intervention 2
Within-Subject Fixed Effects γ ij Coeff. SE γ ij Coeff. SE γ ij Coeff. SE p γ ij Coeff. SE p a
Variety of exercises Intercept γ00 .51 .04 γ10 -.14 .05 γ20 -.10 .05 .08 γ30 -.10 .05 .12
  Group γ01 -.03 .06 γ11 .13 .06 γ21 .24 .06 .00 γ31 .22 .07 .00
Occurrence of exercise Intercept γ00 7.78 .83 γ10 -3.00 .86 γ20 -2.33 0.92 .01 γ30 -2.31 1.02 .02
  Group γ01 -.97 1.10 γ11 2.40 1.13 γ21 5.23 1.19 .00 γ31 2.54 1.30 .05
- stretching Intercept γ00 3.12 .38 γ10 -1.06 .42 γ20 -.87 .45 .06 γ30 -.45 .50 .37
  Group γ01 -.40 .50 γ11 .76 .56 γ21 2.63 .59 .00 γ31 .44 .64 .50
- walking Intercept γ00 2.67 .36 γ10 -.90 .42 γ20 -.99 .45 .03 γ30 -1.12 .50 .03
  Group γ01 -.56 .48 γ11 .79 .56 γ21 1.35 .59 .02 γ31 -1.59 .64 .01
- strengthening Intercept γ00 2.00 .36 γ10 -1.00 .39 γ20 -.39 .41 .30 γ30 -.69 .46 .14
  Group γ01 -0.01 .47 γ11 1.09 .51 γ21 .91 .53 .10 γ31 .39 .59 .51
  1. Statistical significance of coefficient γ31 is indicative of maintenance effects using the following model:
  2. Level 1 model: Outcome = β0j + β1jX1 + β2jX2 + β2jX2+ rij
  3. Level 2 model: T1 β0j= γ00 + γ01 Grj + uoj
  4. T2 β1j= γ10 + γ11 Grj
  5. T3 β2j= γ20 + γ21 Grj
  6. T4 β2j= γ30 + γ31 Grj
  7. where i: 1 ....N individuals ; rij: level 1 error term ; γij : coefficients for parameters ; uoj: level-2 random effect ; β: coefficient ; Gr: group membership (1 = experimental, 0 = control) ; X1: dummy variable (1 = pre-intervention, 0 = otherwise) ; X2: dummy variable(1 = post-intervention-1, 0 = otherwise); X3: dummy variable(1 = post-intervention-2, 0 = otherwise)
  8. Meaning of Coefficients:
  9. γ00 = Predicted value in outcome variable at baseline for participants in control group
  10. γ01 Grj = Predicted difference in outcome variable at baseline for participants in experimental group
  11. γ10 = Predicted change in outcome variable from baseline to pre-intervention for participants in control group
  12. γ11 Grj = Predicted difference in change in outcome variable from baseline to pre-intervention for participants in experimental group
  13. γ20 = Predicted change in outcome variable from baseline to post-intervention1 for participants in control group
  14. γ21 Grj = Predicted difference in change in outcome variable from baseline to post-intervention-1 for participants in experimental group
  15. γ30 = Predicted change in outcome variable from baseline to post-intervention-2 for participants in control
  16. γ31 Grj = Predicted difference in change in outcome variable from baseline to post-intervention-2 for participants in experimental group.
  17. asignificance of the changes that had occurred between post-intervention-1 and post-intervention-2