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Table 2 Crude multinomial analysis of the stages of change for physical activity according to the covariates§. Pelotas, Brazil, 2005.

From: Stages of change for physical activity in adults from Southern Brazil: a population-based survey

Variable N Contemplation PR (95%CI) Preparation PR (95%CI) Action PR (95%CI) Maintenance PR (95%CI)
Sex   p = 0.002* p = 0.005* p = 0.005* p < 0.001*
   Male 1378 0.71 (0.57–0.88) 0.54 (0.60–0.91) 0.60 (0.42–0.86) 1.46 (1.23–1.74)
   Female 1758 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Skin color   p = 0.176* p = 0.120* p = 0.135* p = 0.172*
   White 2634 1.31 (0.89–1.93) 1.27 (0.91–4.73) 1.48 (0.882.48) 1.23 (0.91–1.64)
   Non-white 502 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Age (years)   p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p = 0.011**
   20–39 1358 2.58 (1.75–3.81) 1.89 (1.39–2.58) 3.42 (1.95–5.99) 1.41 (1.06–1.88)
   40–59 1181 1.50 (1.03–2.18) 1.58 (1.18–2.11) 1.30 (0.71–2.37) 1.07 (0.82–1.40)
   ≥ 60 597 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Marital status   p = 0.008* p = 0.070* p = 0.027* p = 0.007*
   Without a partner 1168 1.30 (1.07–1.58) 1.21 (0.98–1.49) 1.48 (1.05–2.08) 1.34 (1.09–1.66)
   With a partner 1968 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Education level (years)   p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001**
   0–4 783 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   5–8 1005 1.44 (1.08–1.94) 1.65 (1.23–2.21) 2.20 (1.16–4.18) 1.20 (0.93–1.54)
   9–11 824 3.19 (2.28–4.48) 3.29 (2.38–4.56) 5.34 (2.90–9.84) 3.11 (2.30–4.19)
   ≥ 12 522 4.66 (3.04–7.12) 6.38 (4.32–9.41) 9.43 (4.68–18.98) 5.37 (3.62–7.97)
Economic status   p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001**
   A/B (wealthiest) 985 2.57 (1.83–3.62) 3.15 (2.29–4.32) 5.15 (3.21–8.26) 3.07 (2.25–4.19)
   C 1295 1.36 (0.99–1.88) 1.42 (1.07–1.88) 1.75 (1.13–2.71) 1.43 (1.12–1.84)
   D/E 835 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Family income (quintiles)   p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001**
   1 (lower) 577 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2 621 1.12 (0.76–1.65) 1.14 (0.83–1.56) 0.65 (0.36–1.19) 0.93 (0.67–1.29)
   3 676 1.86 (1.31–2.66) 1.32 (0.94–1.87) 0.92 (0.52–1.62) 1.50 (1.07–2.12)
   4 581 1.78 (1.17–2.70) 1.72 (1.18–2.51) 1.59 (0.91–2.80) 1.72 (1.22–2.41)
   5 660 2.83 (1.79–4.47) 2.90 (1.97–4.26) 2.90 (1.64–5.13) 3.15 (2.21–4.49)
Smoking   p = 0.017* p < 0.001* p = 0.004* p < 0.001*
   Non-smoker 1634 1.43 (1.09–1.86) 1.74 (1.38–2.20) 1.95 (1.28–2.97) 2.15 (1.66–2.78)
   Former smoker 664 1.09 (0.76–1.57) 1.54 (1.14–2.09) 1.16 (0.66–2.02) 2.13 (1.58–2.86)
   Current smoker 838 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
BMI (kg/m2)   p = 0.011** p < 0.001** p = 0.332** p = 0.734**
   < 25.0 1468 0.68 (0.48–0.96) 0.59 (0.43–0.81) 0.76 (0.46–1.25) 1.06 (0.76–1.47)
   25.0 a 29.9 1092 0.91 (0.65–1.28) 0.87(0.65–1.15) 0.78 (0.47–1.29) 1.27 (0.92–1.75)
   ≥ 30.0 471 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Self-reported health status   p = 0.017** p < 0.001** p < 0.001** p < 0.001**
   Excellent/very good 831 1.48 (1.10–2.00) 1.78 (1.31–2.14) 2.76 (1.76–4.32) 3.14 (2.32–4.25)
   Good 1428 1.07 (0.79–1.43) 1.17 (0.89–1.54) 1.26 (0.78–2.04) 1.44 (1.11–1.87)
   Regular/poor 877 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. § Precontemplation stage is the base-outcome.
  2. Criterion of Brazilian Economic Classification [17].
  3. BMI had 3.3% of missing values; the other variables had less than 1%.
  4. * Wald test for heterogeneity.
  5. ** Wald test for linear trend.