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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for snacking in eight snacking contexts and the likelihood of skipping meals among adolescents

From: Snacking behaviours of adolescents and their association with skipping meals

  Breakfast Lunch Dinner
Snacking context OR 95% CI   OR 95% CI   OR 95% CI  
After school          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00   
    Low snacker 0.69 0.41–1.16   0.87 0.44–1.70   1.01 0.37–2.77  
    Medium snacker 0.78 0.49–1.24   0.77 0.41–1.43   0.48 0.18–1.34  
    High snacker 0.66 0.43–1.01   0.94 0.54–1.65   0.36 0.15–0.86  
While watching TV          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00   
    Low snacker 0.68 0.44–1.05   0.80 0.47–1.35   0.52 0.20–1.36  
    Medium snacker 0.85 0.59–1.24   0.87 0.55–1.38   0.31 0.12–0.77 *
    High snacker 1.25 0.88–1.77   1.14 0.74–1.74   0.64 0.31–1.32  
While hanging out with friends          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00   
    Low snacker 0.96 0.70–1.30   0.36 0.59–1.21   0.49 0.23–1.04  
    Medium snacker 1.24 0.92–1.68   0.94 0.69–1.41   0.48 0.22–1.04  
    High snacker 1.38 1.04–1.83   0.69 0.77–1.49   0.84 0.45–1.57  
While doing homework or working          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00 0.50–2.25  
    Low snacker 0.72 0.55–0.95   0.69 0.49–0.98   1.06 0.44–1.97  
    Medium snacker 1.01 0.79–1.29   0.96 0.71–1.30   0.93 1.08–3.61  
    High snacker 1.33 1.06–1.66 * 1.39 1.06–1.82   1.97 0.58–1.48  
On the run          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00   
    Low snacker 1.02 0.80–1.31   1.04 0.77–1.40   0.42 0.20–0.86  
    Medium snacker 1.33 1.03–1.71   1.20 0.88–1.63   0.69 0.35–1.34  
    High snacker 2.48 1.92–3.19 ** 1.88 1.38–2.55 ** 1.52 0.85–2.72  
On way to or from school          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00   
    Low snacker 1.49 1.18–1.89 ** 0.95 0.69–1.30   1.05 0.49–2.23  
    Medium snacker 1.49 1.14–1.94 * 1.17 0.83–1.64   1.79 0.89–3.62  
    High snacker 2.24 1.77–2.85 ** 2.11 1.60–2.78 ** 3.29 1.88–5.75 **
All day long          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00   
    Low snacker 1.26 0.99–1.61   1.15 0.85–1.56   1.37 0.69–2.74  
    Medium snacker 1.63 1.24–2.14 ** 1.40 1.00–1.97   2.14 1.07–4.28  
    High snacker 1.98 1.53–2.57 ** 1.85 1.35–2.52 ** 3.26 1.81–5.89 **
In middle of night          
    Non-snacker 1.00    1.00    1.00   
    Low snacker 1.50 1.13–2.0 * 1.50 1.06–2.12   2.29 1.16–4.54  
    Medium snacker 1.89 1.29–2.77 ** 1.62 1.01–2.61   2.64 1.09–6.36  
    High snacker 3.92 2.89–5.32 ** 3.66 2.61–5.14 ** 5.37 2.91–9.89 **
  1. High snackers included adolescents who snacked 'most days' or 'everyday'. Adjusted for sex and region of residence.
  2. * p ≤ 0.01, ** p ≤ 0.001.