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Table 1 Effect of free subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme; while provided (May 2002) and three years later (May 2005).

From: Free school fruit – sustained effect three years later

   Adjusted mean values* Change in adjusted values*
   Sept. 01 May 02 May 05 Sept. 01 to May 02 Sept. 01 to May 05 (**)
FV at school (portions/day)       
Boys Free fruit (n = 291) 0.16 0.66 0.21 0.50 0.05
  Control (n = 646) 0.19 0.16 0.11 -0.03 -0.09
  difference -0.03 0.50 0.10 0.53 0.13 (0.07)
  p-value     <0.001 <0.001 (0.04)
Girls Free fruit (n = 273) 0.29 0.76 0.37 0.48 0.08
  Control (n = 644) 0.32 0.24 0.25 -0.08 -0.07
  difference -0.03 0.53 0.12 0.56 0.15 (0.07)
  p-value     <0.001 <0.001 (0.04)
FV all day (portions/day)       
Boys Free fruit (n = 300) 1.25 1.42 1.22 0.18 -0.03
  Control (n = 670) 1.57 1.18 1.16 -0.39 -0.41
  difference -0.32 0.24 0.06 0.57 0.38 (0.31)
  p-value     <0.001 <0.001 (0.008)
Girls Free fruit (n = 281) 1.95 2.18 1.91 0.23 -0.04
  Control (n = 675) 2.03 1.57 1.54 -0.46 -0.48
  difference -0.07 0.62 0.37 0.69 0.44 (0.35)
  p-value     <0.001 <0.001 (0.008)
Usual FV intake (times/week)       
Boys Free fruit (n = 294) 12.1 12.9 12.7 0.8 0.6
  Control (n = 644) 13.2 12.7 12.2 -0.5 -1.0
  difference -1.1 0.2 0.6 1.3 1.6 (0.9)
  p-value     <0.001 <0.001 (0.04)
Girls Free fruit (n = 273) 15.6 16.4 16.2 0.8 0.6
  Control (n = 651) 15.1 14.6 14.1 -0.5 -1.0
  difference 0.5 1.8 2.2 1.3 1.6 (0.9)
  p-value     <0.001 <0.001 (0.04)
Soda/candy/chips (times/week)       
Boys Free fruit (n = 572) 6.0 5.8 5.9 -0.2 -0.1
  Control (n = 1303) 6.5 6.6 6.6 0.1 0.2
  difference -0.4 -0.8 -0.7 -0.3 -0.3 (-0.2)
  p-value     0.07 0.31 (0.48)
Girls Free fruit (n = 572) 5.3 5.1 4.6 -0.2 -0.7
  Control (n = 1303) 5.7 5.9 5.2 0.2 -0.6
  difference -0.4 -0.7 -0.6 -0.3 -0.2 (-0.1)
  p-value     0.07 0.31 (0.48)
  1. * Data were analysed by a linear mixed model for repeated measures. Fixed effects were intervention condition, gender, class level, and time (survey). Random effects were added for pupil and school, where pupils were nested within schools. Interaction effects included in the models: time and intervention condition (all models), sex and intervention condition (FV all day, usual FV intake), time and sex (FV at school, soda/candy/chips).
  2. ** Numbers in the parenthesis are adjusted for individual subscription to the school fruit programme. For usual FV intake an interaction between individual subscription and intervention was included.