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Table 2 Cross-sectional studies examining the influence of sport, physical education or physical activity upon academic achievement.

From: Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

Author Sample Milieu Outcome measure Response
Significant association
Nelson and Gordon-Larsen [20] US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health USA Grades Risk ratio for higher results 1.20 for mathematics and 1.21 for English
Field et al. [21] 52 girls and 37 boys in suburban high school USA GPA Higher GPA
Dwyer et al. [24] 7961 schoolchildren, aged 7–15 years in 109 schools Australia Rating by the school principal school performance positively associated with PA in the preceding week
Pate et al. [25] Youth Risk Behavior Survey adolescents USA Perception of academic performance Inverse relation with level of PA.
Williams [26]   England GPA positive association between school sports participation and AA
Sigfudsdottir et al. [27]   Iceland self-reported school performance r = -0.11 with absenteeism and r = 0.09 with grades
Negative or null outcomes on AA
Tremblay et al. [28] 6,923 grade 6 children New Brunswick (Canada) GPA and self-esteem Inverse relation PA and AA
Daley and Ryan [29] 232 boys and girls (13–16 years old) England self-reported PA and GPA No relationship except for the duration of PA time vs. marks for English (r = -0.29 to -0.30)
Dollman et al. [30] Primary school children grades 3, 5 and 7 in 117 schools Australia Reading and maths scores No relation
Yu et al. [31] 333 Chinese pre-adolescents (aged 8–12) Hong Kong, China Examination results and conduct grades No relation with AA but relation with self-esteem