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Table 2 Summary of associations between physical environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour

From: Environmental determinants of active travel in youth: A review and framework for future research

  Associations with active travel behaviour
Sample Age Youth Children Adolescents
Direction of Association Negative None Positive Negative None Positive Negative None Positive
Characteristics of the neighbourhood          
   Provision of facilities    [35]   [33, 34]   [25]F [32, 34]M [36]F [25]M [34]F
   Personal safety    [35]   [33, 34, 40] [38, 39]   [25, 36]F  
   Road safety     [34] M [34]F [33, 34, 40]   [36]F [25]
   Social interactions    [29]      [36]F [25, 40, 41]
   Facilities to assist active travel    [35, 42, 43]      [32, 36]  
   Urban form and street design    [29]   [45] [32, 35]    [45]
   Aesthetics    [35]     [36]   
Characteristics of the destination and surroundings          
Destination characteristics          
   School size   [42]   [47]      
Characteristics of surroundings          
   Urban-rural status [48] [30]        
   Facilities assist active travel      [38]     
   Urban form       [38]    
   Visibility       [38]    
Characteristics of the route          
   Length [52]    [40, 49]    [51, 53]   
   Road safety    [54]    [38, 40, 50]    
   Urban form & topography     [40] [40]   [40] [51] [51]
  1. Numbers given are reference numbers.
  2. Effects which are specific to different gender groups are noted separately; M male; F females.
  3. The same study may occur twice within a topic if different measures are used and show different associations.