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Table 3 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) describing the relationships between frequency of family meals and aspects of the home food environment and nutrition behaviors

From: Relationships between frequency of family meals, BMI and nutritional aspects of the home food environment among New Zealand adolescents

Frequency of family meals   None 1–2 days 3–4 days Everyday p-value1
Support and Boundaries
A lot of maternal support for healthy eating % 49.7 55.3 58.6 67.3  
  OR 1.0 1.28 1.46 2.09  
  CI . 0.9–1.7 1.1–1.9 1.6–2.7 < 0.001
A lot of paternal support for healthy eathing % 41.2 44.5 44.6 54.4  
  OR 1.0 1.16 1.15 1.69  
  CI . 0.9–1.5 0.9–1.5 1.3–2.2 < 0.001
Parental limits on TV use % 42.3 54.0 56.4 60.2  
  OR 1.0 1.61 1.75 2.00  
  CI . 1.2–2.1 1.4–2.2 1.6–2.5 < 0.001
Food Accessibility at home
Fruit available everyday % 54.7 50.3 55.3 63.1  
  OR 1.0 0.85 1.04 1.44  
  CI . 0.7–1.1 0.8–1.4 1.1–1.8 < 0.001
Chips available most days % 41.3 43.1 42.8 40.3  
  OR 1.0 1.07 1.06 0.96  
  CI . 0.8–1.4 0.8–1.4 0.7–1.2 0.58
Chocolates available most days % 24.7 25.3 24.9 23.8  
  OR 1.0 1.04 1.01 0.95  
  CI . 0.8–1.4 0.8–1.3 0.7–1.3 0.87
Soft drinks available most days % 35.0 37.3 37.6 34.1  
  OR 1.0 1.09 1.10 0.95  
  CI . 0.8–1.5 0.8–1.5 0.7–1.2 0.43
Positive Nutrition Behaviors
5 or more fruits and vegetables a day % 33.7 37.7 39.3 47.8  
  OR 1.0 1.19 1.246 1.76  
  CI . 0.9–1.6 1.0–1.6 1.4–2.3 < 0.001
Fruit for afternoon snack, most days % 33.7 38.1 40.7 47.5  
  OR 1.0 1.23 1.37 1.76  
  CI . 0.9–1.7 1.1–1.9 1.3–2.3 < 0.001
Bring some of their school food from home % 63.7 64.3 71.9 78.7  
  OR 1.0 1.01 1.40 1.99  
  CI . 0.8–1.4 1.1–1.9 1.5–2.7 < 0.001
Eat breakfast at home before school, everyday % 18.3 13.6 22.0 31.6  
  OR 1.0 0.70 1.22 1.97  
  CI . 0.5–1.1 0.8–1.8 1.4–2.8 < 0.001
Less Healthy Nutrition Behaviors
Drink ≥ 1 soft drinks a day % 77.6 75.8 72.9 77.7  
  OR 1.0 0.94 0.83 1.05  
  CI . 0.7–1.4 0.6–1.1 0.8–1.5 0.17
Eat fast food once a week or more % 48.7 44.5 44.2 50.3  
  OR 1.0 1.18 1.19 0.94  
  CI . 0.9–1.5 0.9–1.5 0.7–1.2 0.019
Fried food for afternoon snack, most days % 25.7 27.1 26.2 25.5  
  OR 1.0 1.06 1.01 0.98  
  CI . 0.8–1.5 0.7–1.4 0.7–1.3 0.94
Chocolates for afternoon snack, most days % 30.3 30.5 30.1 30.4  
  OR 1.0 1.04 1.04 1.04  
  CI . 0.8–1.4 0.8–1.4 0.8–1.4 0.99
  1. 1P-value for Wald chi-square, controlling for age and gender