Skip to main content

Table 2 Study and participant characteristics for studies with directly comparable data

From: A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

First Author – Year Age Range or Mean (SD) Nanalyzed Population Direct Measure Indirect Measure Units Testing Conditions*
   Total Men Women      
Adams 2003 A 40–65 80 0 80 Disease free Accel 7-day PAR – Light kcal/kg/day A
Adams 2003 B       Accel 7-day PAR – MPA   
Adams 2003 C       Accel 7-day PAR – VPA   
Adams 2005 A 40–65 80 0 80 Disease free DLW 7-day PAR 1 kcal/kg/day C
Adams 2005 B       DLW 7-day PAR 2   
Adams 2005 C       DLW 24-hr PAR   
Ainsworth 1993 A 23–59 75 27 48 White collar workers Accel 7-day PAR average MET NS
Ainsworth 1993 B       Accel Tecumseh   
Ainsworth 1993 C       Accel PAR   
Ainsworth 2000 20–60 50 0 50 Females Accel KPAS MET-min/day A
Atienza 2005 60.3 (9.1) 15 0 15 Filipino American Accel 3-day PAD min/3-day A
Barnard 2002 22–59 15 8 7 Healthy volunteers DLW MAQ MJ NS
Bassett 2000 25–70 96 48 48 General population Ped CAQ kcal/week D
Bernstein 1998 35–69 41 18 23 General population HRM PAFQ kcal/day C
Bonnefoy 2001 66–82 19 19 0 Elderly DLW QAPSE kcal/day A
Boulay 1994 A 21 (5) 15 15 0 X-Country skiers HRM 3-day PAD MJ/day C
Boulay 1994 B 22 (1)     Controls HRM    
Buchowski 1999 A 20–50 115 45 70 Volunteers – Normal Indirect cal. PAD ≤ 2.4 METS min/day A
Buchowski 1999 B       Indirect cal. PAD 2.5–4.4 METS   
Buchowski 1999 C       Indirect cal. PAD ≥ 4.5 METS   
Buchowski 1999 D      Volunteers – Exercise Indirect cal. PAD ≤ 2.4 METS   
Buchowski 1999 E       Indirect cal. PAD 2.5–4.4 METS   
Buchowski 1999 F       Indirect cal. PAD ≥ 4.5 METS   
Clark 1994 A 37.3 (3.6) 14 0 14 Large eaters DLW PAD MJ/day C
Clark 1994 B 39.7 (2.0)     Small eaters DLW    
Conway 2002 A 42 (2.3) 24 24 0 Feeding study DLW Minnesota MJ/day C
Conway 2002 B       DLW Tecumseh   
Conway 2002 AA 41.2 (2.0) 24 24 0 Feeding study DLW PAR MJ/day C
Conway 2002 BB       DLW Stanford   
Davis 2004 A 19–69 62 24 38 Obese Accel YPAS kcal/day NS
Davis 2004 B       Accel   kcal/kg/day  
Davis 2004 C      Normal weight Accel   kcal/day  
Davis 2004 D       Accel   kcal/kg/day  
Ekelund 2006 A 20–69 185 87 98 Swedish adults Accel IPAQ – MPA min/day A
Ekelund 2006 B       Accel IPAQ – VPA   
Fogelholm 1998 29–46 20 0 20 Overwgt premenopause HRM PAD min/day A
Friedenreich 2006 A 35–65 154 75 79 Healthy Canadians Accel PAQ MET-hr/week B
Friedenreich 2006 B       Accel 7-day PAR MET-hr/week  
Friedenreich 2006 C       Accel PAQ hr/week  
Friedenreich 2006 D       Accel 7-day PAR hr/week  
Hagfors 2005 diet 58.8 (9.9), control 59.5 (8.1) 9 3 6 Rheumatoid Arthritis DLW 3-day PAR MJ/day C
Hayden-Wade 2003 A 18–67 69 25 44 Active and sedentary Accel 7-day PAR – MPA min/week A
Hayden-Wade 2003 B       Accel 7-day PAR – Hard   
Hayden-Wade 2003 C       Accel 7-day PAR – Vhard   
Iqbal 2006 A 26 (3.8) 50 0 50 Pakistani Accel MOSPA – LT kcal/day A
Iqbal 2006 B       Accel MOSPA – ST   
Irwin 2001 A 27–65 24 24 0 Adult men DLW 7-day PAR kcal/day C
Irwin 2001 B       DLW PAL   
Jacobs Jr 1993 A 20–59 78 28 50   Accel Minnesota MET/min/day NS
Jacobs Jr 1993 B       Accel 7-day PAR   
Jacobs Jr 1993 C       Accel CAQ   
Jakicic 1998 A 25–50 50 0 50 Overwgt under reporters Accel PAR min/week A
Jakicic 1998 B      Overwgt over reporters Accel PAR   
Johnson Kozlow 2006 A 35–77 96 0 96 Breast cancer Accel IPAQ min/week A
Johnson Kozlow 2006 B   63 0 63    7-day PAR   
Johnson-Kozlow 2007 38–72 63 0 63 Breast cancer Accel WHIQ min/week A
Koulouri 2006 A 28.3 (6.0) 10    Healthy – baseline Ped PAD KJ A
Koulouri 2006 B      Healthy – intervention Ped    
Lasuzzo 2004 71.7 (8.2) 39 19 20 Seniors Accel Fullerton MET-min/day A
Leenders 1998 A 18–40 10 0 10 Healthy females Accel, HRM, DLW 7-day PAR kcal/day A
Leenders 1998 B       Accel, DLW PAEE kcal/day  
Leenders 2000 26 (6.6) 12 0 12 Healthy college Accel, Ped 7-day PAR kcal/kg/day A
Leenders 2001 21–37 13 0 13 Healthy females Accel, Ped, DLW 7-day PAR kcal/day A
Lemmer 2001 A 20–30 40 21 19 Younger males Accel PAQ kJ/day C
Lemmer 2001 B 65–75     Older males Accel    
Levin 1999 A 21–59 77 28 49 Healthy volunteers Accel 4-week PAR MET-min/day C
Levin 1999 B        SAFE   
Liu 2001 22–86 31    Elderly Chinese Indirect cal. PAQ kcal NS
Lof 2003 A 21–41 34 0 34 Healthy Swedish Accel, HRM, DLW PAQ – TEE kJ/24-hour A
Lof 2003 B       HRM PAQ – PAEE   
Lovejoy 2001 A 47.4 (0.2) 149 0 149 Premenopausal African Accel PAQ kJ/day D
Lovejoy 2001 B      Premenopausal White Accel   kJ/day  
Masse 1999 35–61 31 0 31 Volunteers Accel 3-day PAD kcal/day A
Matthews 1995 A 26.7 25 14 11 University volunteers Accel 3-day PAL kcal/day A
Matthews 1995 B        7-day PAR   
Matthews 2005 A 46 69    Volunteers Accel 24-hr PAR min/day C
Matthews 2005 B       Accel   min/wk  
Matthews 2005 C       Accel STAR Closed min/day  
Matthews 2005 D       Accel   min/wk  
Matthews 2005 E       Accel STAR Open min/day  
Matthews 2005 F       Accel   min/wk  
McDermott 2000 A 67.2 (7.0) 41 19 22 Peripheral Arterial Disease Accel LTPAQ kcal/week A
McDermott 2000 B 66.1 (5.4)     Non-PAD Accel    
Meriwether 2006 A 20–61 63 10 58 Volunteers Accel PAAT min/week A
Meriwether 2006 B       Accel IPAQ   
Miller 2005 A 61.6 (7.2) 13    Diabetic/CABG intervention Accel 7-day PAD kcal/kg/day D
Miller 2005 B      Diabetic/CABG control Accel    
Paton 1996 26–45 10 10 0 HIV positive DLW PAD PA Level A
Paul 2005 39 (9) 12 12 0 Non-smoking DLW 7-day PAQ MJ/day A
Pitta 2005 A 61 (8) 13 10 3 COPD – Walking Accel 1-day PAD mins. A
Pitta 2005 B      COPD – Cycling Accel    
Pitta 2005 C      COPD – Standing Accel    
Pitta 2005 D      COPD – Sitting Accel    
Pitta 2005 E      COPD – Lying Accel    
Racette 1995 A 21–47 14 0 14 Obese HRM, DLW 7-day PAR MJ/day C
Racette 1995 B       HRM   kcal/day  
Richardson 1994 A 20–59 78 28 50 Healthy Accel Minnesota MET/min/day C
Richardson 1994 B       Accel 4-week PAQ   
Richardson 1994 C       Accel 48-hr PAL   
Richardson 1995 20–59 78 28 50 Healthy Accel Baecke MET/min/day A
Richardson 2001 20–59 77 27 50 Healthy Accel Stanford 7-day PAR MET/min/day A
Rothenberg 1998 73 20 8 12 Healthy, free-living HRM, DLW PAD MJ/day C
Rutgers 1997 A 68–78 13 0 13 Elderly – individual calibration HRM PAQ MJ/day A
Rutgers 1997 B      Elderly – group calibration HRM    
Schmidt 2003 A 39–65 58 0 58 College – Freedson Accel PAL min/day A
Schmidt 2003 B      College – Hendelman Accel    
Schmidt 2003 C      College – Swartz Accel    
Schmidt 2006 A 18–47 54 0 54 Pregnant – Freedson Accel PPAQ MET-min/day C
Schmidt 2006 B      Pregnant – Hendelman Accel    
Schmidt 2006 C      Pregnant – Swartz Accel    
Schulz 1989 A 20–30 6 4 2 Healthy university HRM – Proc 1 PAD – Procedure 5 MJ/day A
Schulz 1989 B       HRM – Proc 2 PAD – Procedure 5   
Schulz 1989 C       HRM – Proc 3 PAD – Procedure 5   
Schulz 1989 D       HRM – Proc 4 PAD – Procedure 5   
Schulz 1989 E       HRM – Proc 1 PAD – Procedure 6   
Schulz 1989 F       HRM – Proc 2 PAD – Procedure 6   
Schulz 1989 G       HRM – Proc 3 PAD – Procedure 6   
Schulz 1989 H       HRM – Proc 4 PAD – Procedure 6   
Schulz 1989 I       DLW PAD – Procedure 5   
Schulz 1989 J       DLW PAD – Procedure 6   
Seale 2002 A 67–82 27 14 13 Rural elderly DLW 7-day PAR – PAWT MJ/day C
Seale 2002 B       DLW 7-day PAR – PABMR   
Seale 2002 C       DLW 7-day PAR – PAREE   
Sjostrom 2002 A 41 (10) 445 202 243 Swedish Accel IPAQ – MPA min/day A
Sjostrom 2002 B       Accel IPAQ – VPA   
Sobngwi 2001 19–68 89 44 45 Cameroonian Accel SSAAQ MET-hr/day C
Soundy 2005 A 52.9 (9.0) 9    Severe mental illness Accel PAQ – week 2 kcal/day C
Soundy 2005 B       Accel PAQ – week 6   
Starling 1998 52–79 65 28 37 Older free-living DLW Minnesota kcal/day NS
Starling 1999 A 45–84 67 32 35 Older free-living Accel, DLW YPAS kcal/day NS
Starling 1999 B       Accel Minnesota   
Staten 2001 A 31–60 35 0 35 Sedentary DLW AAFQ (28-day) kJ/day NS
Staten 2001 B       DLW AAFQ (7-day)   
Stein 2003 A 30.6 (4.7) 56 0 56 Pregnant – active Accel, HRM PAL kcal/day A
Stein 2003 B 27.9 (5.4)     Pregnant – sedentary Accel, HRM    
Strath 2003 A 20–56 25 12 13 General population Accel CAQ – MPA min/day A
Strath 2003 B       Accel CAQ – VPA   
Strath 2003 C       Accel CAQ – MPA+ VPA   
Strath 2004 20–65 15 12 14 General population Accel CAQ (with HR) MET-min/wk NS
Taylor 1984 A 34–69 12 12 0 White males Accel Stanford kcal/day NS
Taylor 1984 B       Accel   kcal/kg/day  
Taylor 1984 C       Accel PAD kcal/day  
Taylor 1984 D       Accel   kcal/kg/day  
Timperio 2003 A M 37.8 (12.7), 122 55 63 Overweight Accel PAQ > 3 MET min/day A
Timperio 2003 B F 39.6 (17.0)      Accel PAQ 3–5.9 MET   
Timperio 2003 C       Accel PAQ > 6 MET   
Timperio 2004 A 18–75 551 241 310 Free-living Accel AAS – Log min/day A
Timperio 2004 B       Accel AAS – No log   
Timperio 2004 C       Accel IPAQ-S – Log   
Timperio 2004 D       Accel IPAQ-S – No log   
Timperio 2004 E       Accel IPAQ-L – Log   
Timperio 2004 F       Accel IPAQ-L – No log   
Timperio 2004 G       Accel BRFSS – Log   
Timperio 2004 H       Accel BRFSS – No log   
Tzetzis 2001 19–21 75 33 42 Novice skiers HRM PAQ time/task B
Wadsworth 2006 A 18–24 71 0 71 College – controls Accel IPAQ – MPA min/day A
Wadsworth 2006 B      College – controls Accel IPAQ – VPA   
Wadsworth 2006 C      College – intervention Accel IPAQ – MPA   
Wadsworth 2006 D      College – intervention Accel IPAQ – VPA   
Walsh 2004 A 20–46 75 0 75 Overweight White DLW Tecumseh kcal/day NS
Walsh 2004 B      Overweight Black DLW    
Walsh 2004 C      Control White DLW    
Walsh 2004 D      Control Black DLW    
Washburn 2003 18–33 46 17 29 Sedentary mod obese DLW PAR kJ/day C
Wendel-Vos 2003 A 44 (6) 50 36 14 Healthy bank workers Accel PAQ 2–4 MET MET D
Wendel-Vos 2003 B       Accel PAQ 4–6.5 MET   
Wendel-Vos 2003 C       Accel PAQ 6.5+ MET   
Wickel 2006 18–23 70 13 57 University Accel PAD kcal/day A
Wilbur 2001 A 45–65 156 0 156 Healthy employees HRM PAQ min/walk A
Wilbur 2001 B       HRM PAL   
  1. * A – measuring same length of time (e.g. 7-days, 1 week) and no time lag, B – same length with time lag, C – different length with no time lag, D – different length with a time lag, NS – not stated
  2. Abbreviations: AAFQ – Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire, AAS – Active Australia Survey, Accel. – accelerometer, BRFSS – Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Cal. – calorimetry, CABG – Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, CAQ – College Alumnus Questionnaire, COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DLW – doubly labeled water, F – female, Fullerton – Fullerton Physical Activity Questionnaire, HRM – heart rate monitor, IPAQ – International Physical Activity Questionnaire, kcal – kilocalorie, kJ – kilojoules, KPAS – Kaiser Physical Activity Survey, LTPAQ – Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, M – male, MAQ – Modifiable Activity Questionnaire, MET – metabolic equivalent, MJ – mega joules, min – minute, Minnesota – Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, MOSPA – Monica Optional Study of Physical Activity questionnaire, MPS – moderate physical activity, PAAT – Physical Activity Assessment Tool, PAD – physical activity diary, PAEE – physical activity energy expenditure, PAFQ – Physical Activity Frequency Questionnaire, PAL – physical activity log, PAQ – physical activity questionnaire, PAR – physical activity recall, Ped. – pedometer, SAFE – Survey of Activity, Fitness, and Exercise, SSAAQ – Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Questionnaire, Stanford – Stanford Physical Activity Questionnaire, STAR – Short Telephone-administered Activity Recall, Tecumseh – Tecumseh Community Health Survey, TEE – total energy expenditure, Vhard – very hard, VPA – vigorous physical activity, WHIQ – Women's Health Initiative Questionnaire, wk – week, YPAS – Yale Physical Activity Survey